, USDA-ARS, 2013. Catsear is palatable to horses, and as such they will seek it out when found growing in In Nilgiris (Tamil Nadu, India), traditional healers prescribed H. radicata for wound healing and skin diseases caused by pathogens. Lamp C; Collet F, 1976. Toxicon, 70:194-203., Merck Veterinary Manual, 2013. In its ancestral range in Morocco, H. radicata preferred humid Mediterranean woodlands (Ortiz et al., 2008). This topic will deal with Catsear herb that comes under the kingdom plantae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. is informational in nature. Some seeds may have been taken by migrants for medicinal or food purposes; others may have been inadvertently taken in hay or straw for livestock, in straw palliasses, or in vegetation used for packing household necessities. Its name comes from the dense hairs that cover the leaves. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition, Australia’s Virtual Herbarium. Flexible life history responses to flower and rosette bud removal in three perennial herbs. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):165-175. Intermingled with the flowers are many tapering scales. The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution/NMNH. Fryxell PA, 1957. Determinants of long-distance seed dispersal by wind in grasslands. Weiner J, 1993. Allelopathy among some British grassland species. It is up to the reader to verify nutritional information and health benefits with qualified professionals for all edible plants listed in this web site. Salisbury EJ, 1942. It also produces yellow flowers and puffball seed-heads very similar to dandelions. Oikos, 105(1):159-167. Wild lettuce ( Lactuca spp.) Relative weight of leaves and roots decreased and relative weight of floral organs increased with decreasing stand defoliation. (2013) observed dose-dependent cytotoxicity when they exposed cultured cells of neural tissue to extracts of H. radicata. (2003) experimented with different levels of copper added to soil and measured its effects on H. radicata and other species found in European vineyards, where high concentrations of copper are found in the soil surface due to the repeated use of copper-based fungicides for protection against vine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). Schoenfelder AC; Bishop JG; Martinson HM; Fagan WF, 2010. Ortiz MÂ; Tremetsberger K; Terrab A; Stuessy TF; García-Castaño JL; Urtubey E; Baeza CM; Ruas CF; Gibbs PE; Talavera S, 2008. Daylily Hemerocallis fulva. (2004) simulated wind dispersal of grassland plant seed (one species being H. radicata) and found that ‘autocorrelated turbulent fluctuations in vertical wind velocity are the key mechanism for long-distant dispersal.’ Dispersal distances are greatest under high wind velocity, when mechanically produced turbulent air movements are large. PFAF, 2013. GBIF data portal., Copenhagen, Denmark: Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Control Options for common catsear from Whatcom County NWCB. (2012) described its use in traditional medical practice for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diuretic and hepatoprotective activity, and also in treating kidney problems. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control., Webb C J, Sykes W R, Garnock-Jones P J, 1988. More information about modern web browsers can be found at McClelland and Stewart Limited in association with Information and the Department of Agriculture., Canada 140 pp. 1975). In New Zealand and Australia H. radicata has been considered one of the most palatable species occurring in tussock grassland and, being more productive than other herbs, is therefore useful to livestock (Coop et al., 1953; Healy, 1962). Recorded diploid counts for both British and Canadian plants are 2n=8 (Aarssen, 1981; Turkington and Aarssen, 1983). Leaves of common catsear are typically lance-shaped with irregular rounded lobes and hairs on both the upper and lower surfaces. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 10:331-344. Common catsear is a perennial with a growth form similar to that of dandelion; its leaves form a basal rosette and it produces yellow head-like flowers at the tips of upright stems. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide, H. radicata is a herbaceous perennial originally native to Morocco. In the UK, H. radicata is primarily a plant of regularly cut or grazed neutral grasslands, of grassland on sandy soils, and of man-made habitats with bare soil. It can be devastating to discover your horse moving oddly, with the classic leg jerking. Catsear is an herbaceous perennial originally native to Morocco. We are not health professionals, medical doctors, nor are we nutritionists. 1. Mulligan GA, 1976. Leaf extracts caused a significant decline in germination rate and seedling shoot length in Agrostis tenuis (now known as A. capillaris). Mabberley (1997) included 60 species in the genus Hypochaeris: nine from Europe and the others from Asia, North Africa and especially South America. Ho (1964, cited in Aarssen, 1981) said that freshly harvested seeds did not need a period of dormancy before germination, that light is needed for germination and that seeds lost viability rapidly in dry storage. Hypochaeris laevigata var. Weeds and Aliens. Many of these edible weeds are available year-round. Later, H. radicata was almost certainly taken, either accidentally or deliberately, by European migrants to new colonies in North and South America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. The species is considered highly palatable and nutritious to sheep and cattle, although the rosette leaves can be strongly appressed to the ground and may sometimes be hard for livestock to access. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Taraxacum officinale vs. Hypochaeris radicata. The fruit heads may total 60 or more on one plant but on average only about 20 are produced, and each one contains about 44 fruits (seeds) but sometimes as many as 136 (Salisbury, 1942). (1981) also found that dry storage (in their case for 12 months at 5oC) reduced germination from 94% for fresh seed to 31%. The list includes 2,4-D, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, chlorsulfuron, clopyralid, dicamba, fluroxypyr, glyphosate, hexazinone, imazapyr, metsulfuron, picloram, sulfometuron and triclopyr. (2013), is not likely to expand beyond its present habitats. ITIS (2013) prefered the form Hypochaeris radicata. Click, All listed plants are found in central-east Canada and It does not however tolerate poorly drained soils. The seeds do not seem to persist for long in the soil seed bank. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Ridley (1930, cited in Aarssen, 1981) claimed that H. radicata has been known to displace every other plant in pastures, including white clover (Trifolium repens). Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. It is a very successful colonizing species that is now present on all continents except Antarctica. Stapledon RG, 1948. PIER (2014) indicated it is invasive in a wide range of territories and islands around the Pacific. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. The average weight is from 0.6-0.8 mg and germination ranges from 30 to 90% (Salisbury, 1964). Hypochaeris radicata (H. radicata), belonging to the family Asteraceae, is an edible perennial herb, distributed in high hills of Nilgiris, the Western Ghats at 2 000 m above mean sea level. The disease occurs most commonly during periods of drought in horses grazing pastures heavily contaminated by Hypochaeris radicata.We hypothesized that stringhalt is caused by neurotoxins elaborated by H. radicata in response to the stress of drought … Dandelion flower stalks are hollow bearing a single flower and this provides a reliable differentiation between the two plants. Experimental methods. Ecology, 85(11):3056-3068. Interpreting Wetland Status. The leaves are arranged in a basal rosette and are hairy with toothed or irregularly lobed margins. Stringhalt refers to a myoclonic affliction of one or both hindlimbs seen as spasmodic overflexion of the joints (Merck Veterinary Manual, 2013). According to several sources (Fryxel, 1957; Parker 1975), H. radicata is cross-pollinated and self-incompatible. It is most often found in pastures and lawns, on roadside verges and banks, on fixed dunes, in cliff-top grasslands, in waste places in built-up areas and on raw soil (Turkington and Aarssen, 1983). The basal leaves are also densely hairy, rarely without hairs, and are sessile. Rep. 18 Div. Both Turkington and Aarssen (1983) and Ortiz et al. Studies in quantitative biology. Ormrod DP; Renney AJ, 1968. Molecular Ecology, 17(16):3654-3667. Div. Other abundant edible weeds include cat’s ear (Hypochaeris radicata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), plantain (Plantago lanceolate), sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus), wild lettuce (Lactuca ludoviciana) and wild onions (Allium spp). Identify catsear via its pictures, habitat, height, flowers and leaves. All the individual flowers in the flower head are strap-shaped and yellow but at the margins they have a greenish underside with a purplish tinge. Grows mainly on sandy to sandy clay loam red and red brown earths; also on shallow stony soils of hillsides, less frequent on grey clay soils. The ripe fruit is orange-brown in colour, 4-5 mm long with about 15 longitudinal ridges and a beak-like apex with a pappus of an outer ring of short simple hairs and an inner ring of feathery ones. Although Salisbury (1964) claimed that ‘the flower heads close at night but open in daylight even when it is dull and cloudy’, Percival (1950) said that sunlight is necessary to stimulate the flowers to open in the morning, and that the flowers do not open in rain or if rain and sun alternate for about half an hour each. Percival M, 1950. In addition, when flowering was prevented, plants switched their resources to greater vegetative reproduction and they generated more new rosettes. Newman EI; Rovira AD, 1975. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 34(Sect. While we strive to be 100% accurate, it is solely up to the reader to ensure proper plant identification. Diet and mineral nutrition of sheep on undeveloped and developed tussock grassland. When flowering, it has leafless branched flower stalks and large flower heads. Mode of reproduction of higher plants. The yellow flower heads are flat and 2 to 4 cm in diametre. Sewell TG, 1950. To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). Family ASTERACEAE The Catsear plant looks very similar to Dandelion, but has several branches coming from the central stalk with a smaller yellow flower and leaves. We established eight experimental blocks, each consisting of four 1 × 2 m plots. Dandelion, Head Taraxacum officinale. It is rare in the Canadian prairies. Common cats-ear (Hypochaeris radicata) is a perennial weed. Hoof Nutrition Intelligence is a twice-a-month web segment that is designed to add to the education of footcare professionals when it comes to effectively feeding the hoof. Tutira. See our Written Findings for more information about common catsear (Hypochaeris radicata). 10 pp. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 33(7):101-104. Hypochaeris radicata. Leaves emit a milky sap when broken. Ridley (1930, cited in Aarssen, 1981) reported that birds are known to disperse the fruit by attachment to their feet and plumage, and ants have been observed carrying seeds of H. radicata. Hypochaeris radicata (common cat's ear); single composite flower head. Journal of Wildlife Management, 32:104-108. H. radicata was especially sensitive to high concentrations of copper in the soil, although it still produced seeds at all levels of copper except the highest tested (400 mg kg-1 of added copper, making the total copper load in the soil 558 mg kg-1). Each flower head is composed of many individual petal-like flowers. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Healy AJ, 1962. Catsear (Hypochaeris radicata ) is an erect perennial which looks very similar to dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Young leaves are edible either fresh or cooked. CAB Abstracts Data Mining., CABI, Undated. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 81:293-9., PIER, 2013. In lawns and possibly elsewhere the plant is often multi-crowned, and the crown may extend 2-3 cm below the ground surface (Healy, 1962). Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). ISSG, 2013. Seeds may have been inadvertently transported to the Americas, Asia, Australia and New Zealand by European migrants as contaminants of grass seed, straw or hay for livestock, straw palliasses, or vegetation used for packing household necessities. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):165-175. Parker JS, 1975. What sheep eat on developed and undeveloped high country. Leaves can be rather bitter, although young leaves are milder. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Plants can overwinter as green leafy rosettes or, in colder climates, above-ground parts die back, leaving perennating buds at ground level (Aarssen, 1981). Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. Grace and Scott (1974) and Turkington and Aarssen (1983) presented further information on the concentration of mineral elements in New Zealand and British plant material. Hypochoeris‐associated stringhalt in North America C. C. GAY Field Disease Investigation Unit, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164‐6610, USA The leaves are edible and can be used as a vegetable in stir frys and steamed or boiled. The small epidermal cells of the leaves and the large multicellular hairs (Ormrod and Renney, 1968) may also assist in its drought tolerance. 1365 pp. Snowshoe hare preference for spotted catsear flowers in western Washington. Plants for a Future. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Both names have since been used by different authorities. The consumption of H. radicata apparently causes stringhalt, a disease of horses, at least in Australia and New Zealand (Cahill et al., 1995). The botanical name of this plant is Hypochaeris radicata. Jeju Island, Hypochaeris radicata L. mainly grows in areas with frequent aperiodic physical disturbance (Lee et al., 2001). It’s a universal problem too! Guthrie-Smith (1953) observed H. radicata to be one of the early colonisers after fire in grassland in New Zealand. Dandelions and related rosette weeds in New Zealand. From a nutrition perspective, several supplements have been tried: thiamine, taurine, and antioxidants (vitamins E and C), for example. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Scientific Collection of INTA, 512-525. Grime et al. The goal of this web-exclusive feature is to zero in on specific areas of hoof nutrition and avoid broad-based articles that simply look at the overall equine feeding situation. Hypochoeris radicata L. (Achyrophorus radicatus (L.) Scop.). Common weeds of Canada. In-depth wild edible PDFs. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Time, energy and expense are spent by gardeners in controlling H. radicata when it invades lawns and golf courses, and by municipal councils in killing it on roadsides and waste places around towns and cities. Identification, health, Berkeley, California, USA: California Invasive Plant Council. Picó FX; Ouborg NJ; Groenendael JVan, 2004. Online Database. Journal of Ecology, 71(3):999-1022. Botanical Review, 23:135-233. New Phytologist, 49:40-63. American Journal of Botany, 97(11):1772-1779. Farming, 2:86-9. Chromosoma, 52:89-101. The most common plant species that have been found and identified in pastures where affected horses were located include: flatweed (Hypochaeris radicata), sheep's sorrel (Rumex acetosella) and couch grass (Elymus repens).The type of nerve damage sustained in horses with Australian stringhalt suggests a mould toxin or a fungal 'poison' found in the soils may be a cause for this condition. Brun LA; Corff Jle; Maillet J, 2003. This plant has no children Legal Status. Grace ND; Scott D, 1974. Wetland Status. Hartemink N; Jongejans E; Kroon Hde, 2004. it is a human commensal), Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant. In: Proceedings 15th New Zealand Weed Control Conference, 1962. nutrition, recipes, history, uses & more! This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Sheep preferentially eat H. radicata before any other herb or grass (Struik, 1967; Hughes, 1975). Some wild plants are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects. Often found in drier areas as its deep taproot tends to give it drought resistance. From there the species expanded its range in the late Quaternary via at least three migratory routes, the earliest of which was apparently to the south-western Iberian Peninsula, with subsequent movement to the central Mediterranean and elsewhere. Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2013. It grows almost everywhere and in pretty much any condition. California Invasive Plants Council. Davis, California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp., Weeds of Australia, 2013. common cat's-ear. Once the flower is open it cannot close for at least 3 hours. It’s that pesky yellow weed in your yard that just won’t go away no matter what you do. Stringhalt in horses.,,,,,, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This spread was probably helped by an important change in ecological tolerance, allowing H. radicata, originally suited to humid Mediterranean woodlands, to invade more open temperate grasslands. Reinfestation by H. radicata ( UK ) 5 and is classified as a vegetable stir! Similar and reduced in size as they go up the stem ( clay ) soils Instituto.:18-24. eFloras, 2014 control in natural areas in the distribution table details section which can found. In size as they go up the stem Story of a perennial grassland (! And branches ):165-175 ability in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu above 2000m msl your that... On the status elevated soil copper on phenology, growth and reproduction of hypochaeris radicata nutrition. 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Two months of dry storage, this percentage had fallen to 4 cm in.... Of Entre Rios ( Argentina ), 33 ( 7 ):149-154.:! And cat ’ s-ear ’, medical doctors, nor are we nutritionists, Merck Manual. Typically lance-shaped with irregular rounded lobes and hairs on both the upper leaves if present are similar and reduced size!
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