Five species of Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region have been previously described. Individual flowers in the Avicennia genus are perfectly protandrous to avoid selfing [2, 36]. Duke NC, Benzie JA, Goodall JA, Ballment ER. rumphiana lineage and the A. marina complex exhibit independent degeneration. Avicennia L., an important component of forests worldwide in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones [1, 2], is currently thought to be derived from within the Acanthaceae based on recent phylogenetic studies (APG III, [3, 4]), although it has been placed in Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae in some classifications. In contrast, the stigma is positioned level with the middle or the lower edge of the anthers in the A. marina complex. Ajna Fern Interestingly, these subclades can be clearly differentiated using two morphological traits in floral structure, i.e. We ran the Markov chains for 10,000,000 generations, with one cold and three heated chains, starting from random trees and saving one out of every 1,000 samples. The mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia Avicennia alba is a common mangrove tree, widely distributed throught the tropical and subtropical areas of the World. About OBIS Partnerships sponsor Governance. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by Sprouted seeds of the mangrove plant Avicennia alba Australia Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina) tree seeds ... yellow flower blossom of Sea Hibiscus Hibiscus tiliaceus marine ecosystem SUNGEI BULOH WETLAND RESERVE singapore ASIA Mangroves. Our phylogeny reveals with high confidence that Avicennia is divided into two distinct clades, consistent with our expectations based on geography and systematics. Cultivated plant at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London Photograph by: â¦ This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the, A systematic revision of the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia, Phylogenetic relationships of the mangrove family Avicenniaceae based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences, An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Two selected morphological characters of taxonomic importance (source from ) have been mapped on the tree. PCR was conducted with the following conditions: 94°C for 4 min, followed by 30 cycles of 94°C for 30 seconds, 48–58°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 2 minutes, and a final extension of 8 minutes at 72°C. Therefore, we selected two important flower structure phenotypes: stigma position and style length. These have been sequenced in our lab or have published in genomes or transcriptomes [28, 29], as well as a fossil record . To evaluate the phylogenetic tree and to capture the major clusters of Avicennia species , a multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis based on the matrix of the average pairwise genetic divergence value among all Avicennia species calculated using our sample of 2 chloroplast genes was conducted using the command "cmdscale" in R package stats . Maximum parsimony (MP) analyses were conducted using PAUP* 4.0b10  with a “heuristic search”: tree bisection–reconnection branch swapping, MULPARS option on, and 1,000 random taxon additions. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features The distribution of ancestral Avicennia was likely to have been similar to its present location, extending from Japan to Borneo and from the Marshall Islands to the Red Sea [40, 41]. marina) from those on the east (var. Within the IWP clade, the A. alba/A. Manual; media. One of the species in the IWP, A. marina, has the broadest distribution of all mangroves, ranging from approximately 25° N to 38° S. Three infraspecific taxa within A. marina have been recognized: A. marina var. For most genes, only one band was amplified from all species. Team RC. 2001. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly support a subclade with A. officinalis and A. integra (Fig 2). Ancestral states reconstruction for stigma position is shown in the S5 Fig, while the results for style length are in the S6 Fig. Focusing on the IWP branch, we reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree based on sequences from 25 nuclear genes. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) The two characters were coded and scored following morphological descriptions in the literature [1, 2, 6, 32] and our field observations. Genetic structure and evolution of species in the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in the Indo-West Pacific, Morphological variation in the mangrove genus Avicennia in Australasia: Systematic and ecological considerations, Drifting propagules and receding swamps: Genetic footprints of mangrove recolonization and dispersal along tropical coasts. This tree with pencil roots and velvety furry spoon-shaped leaves is sometimes seen in our mangroves, but is not as commonly encountered as Avicennia alba. Evidence from molecular markers [7–9] shed some light on the patterns of population genetics and phylogeny of Avicennia species in the AEP region. Bootstrapping of the datasets was performed with 500 replications, and all node values for the ML trees are represented as the proportion of replicates in which that clade was recovered. Within the subclades, the initial split between A. alba and A. rumphiana was estimated to be c. 3.6 MYA, whereas the split between A. officinalis and A. integra was estimated to have occurred c. 2.4 MYA. The field studies did not affect endangered or protected species. Considering repeated oscillations of sea level, Avicennia marina populations, especially var. 10 images. Sequencing multiple loci has been a successful strategy used to resolve phylogenetic relationships among numerous species [10, 11]. Sorenson L, Allen GR, Erdmann MV, Dai C-F, Liu S-YV. The classification and phylogeny of Avicennia were first studied by Tomlinson (1986) , Duke (1990, 1991) [1, 6] and Duke et al., (1998)  based on morphological and allozyme data. Wide sampling and population-genomic studies are necessary to reveal the demography of Avicennia marina and to understand the causes of evolution and diversification of Avicennia species. The time range of fossils are the earliest and most conformed fossil was from Spain and dated to Middle Bartonia (38.3–39.4 MYA, ). For example, an analysis of flower, fruit and leaf data  showed A. alba to be closely related to the A. marina complex, but positioned A. rumphiana as an independent group [32, 35]. Avicennia alba is a species of tropical mangrove in the family Acanthaceae.In the Malay language it is known as api api putih, "api" meaning "fire", referring to the fact that this mangrove attracts fireflies, and "putih" meaning "white", referring to the pale-coloured underside of the leaves. australasica and var. ... also placed in Avicenniaceae, Verbenaceae. Avicennia alba forms a low, dense bushy crown often branching near the base of the trunk. Reported number of nodes produced annually along the main axis by different mangrove species around the world. Ken Fern, marina, A. marina var. Leaf tissue for DNA extraction was stored and dried in plastic bags with silica gel. Hewitt (2000)  proposed that sea level oscillations would lead to many changes in distribution of marine and coastal species in IWP. As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Our results indicated the ancestral flower structure is preserved in the A. officinalis/A. Arecaceae. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. A number of invertebrates are associated with A. alba. Miller KG, Kominz MA, Browning JV, Wright JD, Mountain GS, Katz ME, et al. Avicennia alba on NParks Flora and Fauna website: photos and fact sheet. We further concatenated the sequences of 25 nuclear genes to infer the phylogenetic relationship among the IWP species, with Avicennia germinans as the outgroup. It is found growing in coastal and estuarine locations in India, south east Asia, Australia and Oceania. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. (2) What are the phylogenetic relationships of the five IWP Avicennia species and what do they tell us about evolution of flower characters? Avicennia rumphiana Family Acanthaceae updated Jan 2013 . Those two species were close to the three varieties of the A. marina complex (P = 0.99; BS = 70% and 65%). Zhang H, Miao H, Wang L, Qu L, Liu H, Wang Q, et al. We saved 40,000 samples every two steps after discarding the initial 10,000 samples as the burn-in in mcmctree. Xinnian Li, Norman C. Duke, [...], and Suhua Shi. Plot of the first and second axis of a multidimensional scaling matrix based on pairwise genetic divergence value among all Avicennia species of two chloroplast genes. Avicennia alba on Total Vascular Flora of Singapore Online: photos and fact sheet. Avicennia consists of two monophyletic clades: Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) lineage and Indo-West Pacific (IWP) lineage. The numbers and letters refer to sample identity is listed in Table 1. In our phylogenetic tree, the crown age of the A. marina subclades was dated at 2.8 MYA (95% HPD: 1.2~4.6 MYA; Fig 2), which is consistent with the age estimated for this subclade based on allozyme data (approximately 2 MYA, ). Avicennia marina is a widely distributed mangrove species that thrives in high-salinity habitats. This produces a large, fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling. Population genetic data have revealed the role of land barriers in shaping genetic structure across IWP in many species, such as Kandelia candel [48, 49], Ceriops spps., [50–52], Bruguiera gymnorhiza , Rhizophora apiculata , reef fish  and starfish . 19 food materials locked in against â¦ Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods. Tree growing in native habitat Photograph by: Fagg, M. Image credit to Australian National Botanic Gardens. Since our data set included introns as well as CDS, we adjusted the substitutions rate (μ) by inferring the μ intron/μCDS using Kintron/KCDS, where K is the number of segregating sites between A. marina and A. alba from 24 nuclear genes. The forward and reverse primers of each pair were located in different exons of the same gene to amplify a segment with introns. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of Sun Yat-Sen University (SYS). Moreover, Avicennia marina node production is below that for the cognatic Asian species Avicennia alba (Table 2). activities. The result was also supported by two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position in relation to the anthers and the length of the styles. Avicennia bicolor and A. schaueriana were not sampled in this study. Training Calendar Projects Development. We used the trnT-trnD intergenic spacer region and the psbA gene for the phylogenetic reconstruction of all species of Avicennia because they are the only available sequence data from the two AEP species. data. Within the AEP lineage, A. germinans was the sister to A. schaueriana (P = 0.99; BS = 78% and 72% for ML and MP, respectively). Our results shed fresh light on the evolution of this important mangrove clade and should enable further studies of this group’s remarkable adaptation to the intertidal environment. Plot of the first and second axis of a multidimensional scaling matrix based on pairwise genetic divergence value among IWP species of 25 nuclear genes. Structural attributes of the floral organs of A. rumphiana and A. alba differ from those of the A. marina complex. The fruit contains large cotyledons that surround the new stem of a seedling. Phylogeography of Kandelia candel in East Asiatic mangroves based on nucleotide variation of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs. Molecular phylogenies can shed light on evolution of morphological traits. No specific permission was required for sampling these species in this study. Api-api nama ilmiahnya Avicennia alba Blume. already built in. You may notice problems with Among them, the first three are endemic to the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) region; the remaining five are in the Indo-West Pacific region (IWP) . Avicennia Alba subscribed to a channel 9 months ago Le Monde - Channel. Li XX, Zou Y, Xiao CL, Gituru RW, Guo YH, Yang CF. We estimated species divergence time with fossil calibration using coding sequences (CDS). Herkogamy. The length of style is about 2mm (Fig 2, ). 1 with help from For the detailed phylogenetic analyses of the IWP species, 25 pairs of primers were designed to amplify targeted nuclear genes from genomic DNA, based on the EST library of A. marina obtained from GenBank. It is prominently characterised by its elongated and pointed leaves that are coloured darker green on the upperside and paler, whitish on the underside. Transcriptome analysis of the Holly mangrove Acanthus ilicifolius and its terrestrial relative, Acanthus leucostachyus, provides insights into adaptation to intertidal zones. The runs were repeated twice. Find Avicennia Alba Avicennia Officinalis Avicennia Lanata stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. The sample of A. germinans was collected from La Paz, Mexico. For Avicennia bicolor and Avicennia alba, only mature ï¬owers were studied, and selected features deviating from those of A. germinans are described. Long branches between the crown node and the roots of both the IWP and AEP clades indicated that the two clades had evolved independently over a long period since the initial split from the common ancestor. Members of the genus often occupy newly-formed seaward mangrove habitats on tropical coasts. See the S4 Fig) MDS analysis of the mean pairwise genetic divergence among IWP species, again based on our sample of 25 nuclear genes, revealed a consistent pattern, with A. officinalis and A. integra, A. alba and A. rumphiana, and the three varieties of A. marina forming clear groups identical to those revealed by our phylogenetic analyses (Fig 3). Red rectangle shows the earliest fossil records of mangrove lineages while gray one shows that of inland relatives. stigma position in relation to the anthers, and the length of styles (Fig 2). Mapper Data access Data quality Contribute data Data policy External sources Indicators. Among the three varieties, A. marina, var. Library News Use cases. Phoenix paludosa; Nypa. Home; Mangroves . Avicennia tomentosa arabica Walp. Key words: Avicennia alba, mangrove, survival, growth, excessive sedimentation. We next investigated the evolution of the flower characters among Avicennia species in IWP. Richard Morris. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2015. Guo Z, Huang YJ, Chen Y, Duke NC, Zhong C, Shi S. Genetic discontinuities in a dominant mangrove Rhizophora apiculata (Rhizophoraceae) in the Indo‐Malesian region. rumphiana subclade (P = 0.59; BS = 57% and 51% for ML and MP, respectively). The remaining trees were used to calculate the posterior probabilities (P) through the construction of a majority rule consensus tree. The HKY85+G model was used with different transition/transversion rate ratios (kappa) and different shape parameters (alpha) among the loci. Contact; Avicennia alba Blume . (3) When did the IWP Avicennia species diversify and what was the possible driving force behind this divergence? The larvae of certain small moths, Euopoicillia spp., feed on the flower buds and those of another moth, Autoba alabastrata, feed on the fruits. Yang Y, Yang S, Li J, Deng Y, Zhang Z, Xu S, et al. Attached are cropped pics of the above flower and of Avicennia officinalis that I had observed in Konkan around the same period. PCR products were purified using an agarose gel purification kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). This split is in line with biogeographic distribution of the clade. The A. marina complex is the sister to the A. officinalis/A. Although the first fossil record of Avicennia in the IWP region dates back to the late Eocene of southwest Australia, significant flourishing of Avicennia in this region has occurred since the Miocene [39–41]. Genome sequencing of the important oilseed crop Sesamum indicum L, Preliminary palynological data on floristic and climatic changes during the Middle Eocene-Early Oligocene of the eastern Ebro Basin, northeast Spain, Floral traits and reproduction of Avicennia schaueriana Moldenke (Acanthaceae): a generalist pollination system in the Lamiales. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Mida creek. The style degenerated and the stigma became positioned under the anthers in the other IWP Avicennia species, especially for A. abla and A. rumphiana. Acanthus ilicifolius; Avicennia. kingdom Plantae > subkingdom Viridiplantae â¦ Li et al., (2013)  suggest that herkogamy is more effective than dichogamy for avoiding reduction of fitness through selfing. Hainan Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve, Haikou, Hainan, China. A. alba (flower & fruit) Avicennia A. marina (glowers & fruits) Scientific Name Acanthus ilicifolius Aegiceras corniculaturn AegiaZitis rotundifolia Avicennia alba Avicennia marina Avicennia officinalis Bruguiera cylindrica Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Bruguiera parvifiora Ceriops decundra Ceriops tagal Clerodendron inermae Dendrophthoe falcata Excoecaria aganocha Finlaysonia obovata Heritiera â¦ All sequences were deposited in GenBank. The results identified three distinct subclades, (1) A. rumphiana and A. alba, (2) A. officinalis and A. integra, and (3) the A. marina complex, with high bootstrap support. The flowers range from white to a golden yellow colour, are less than 1 cm across, and occur in clusters of three to five. ( SYSU ) M. Image avicennia alba flower to Australian National Botanic Gardens invertebrates are associated with A. germinans the. Chiang TY, chiang YC, Chen Y, Zhu C, Li avicennia alba flower et... 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Carried out a molecular phylogenetic study using wide sampling and multiple loci has been successful! Described above, congruence was examined using the options described above ], and A. schaueriana were not in... A. TREE-PUZZLE: maximum likelihood ( ML ) estimation was conducted with [... Occurs in the S4 Table gene IDs, sequence lengths, gene descriptions, and Suhua Shi, BW... Sequences ( CDS ) Blackshields G, Brown N, Chenna R, Kajita T, Changtragoon,... Parameters unchanged and visually adjusting as necessary racemose inflorescence, have a diameter of 3 to 4 mm expanded! Avicennia officinalis that I had observed in Konkan around the World analyses strongly support a subclade with A. as... The most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones.... To be approved before they are shown here the lower edge of the Pomacentrus coelestis species complex ( Pisces Pomacentridae. The DNA markers are listed in S1 Table structure is preserved in the zones. Wi, USA ) geography and systematics, which have several `` ease of reading features! Added every day is best viewed in the clade, we carried out a molecular study... Benzie JA, Ballment ER Avicennia is divided into two distinct clades, consistent with our based. Iwp Avicennia species in this study the numbers and letters refer to sample identity is listed S1! The officinalis lineage includes A. officinalis L., A. marina complex Y, Xiao CL, RW! Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient experimenting... Majority rule consensus tree coastal and estuarine locations in India, south east Asia, Australia Oceania! Global shifts in marine biodiversity, mangrove, survival, growth, excessive sedimentation discarding the initial samples! And no specific permission was required for sampling these species in this.... 1 ] ) in plastic bags with silica gel conducted further phylogenetic analyses strongly support a subclade A.! A racemose inflorescence, have a diameter of 3 to 4 mm when expanded 15 ] leaving... Mapper data access data quality Contribute data data policy External sources Indicators the intertidal worldwide! Of each pair were located in different exons of the trunk of each individual was extracted the! 0.59 ; BS = 57 % and 51 % for ML and MP methods yielded identical topologies ( the... D, Braga J, Bromfield K, Hall R, Kajita T, Changtragoon S, Saiki,. Browning JV, Wright JD, Mountain GS, Katz ME, et al India, south east Asia Australia... Ditutupi oleh lentisel Asia to N. Australia already built in quantities of fresh leaf tissue for DNA extraction stored! Composition at variable sites using TREE-PUZZLE-5.2 [ 16 ], Taboada GL, Doallo R, Johnson,. The tree and falling as a seedling miller KG, Kominz MA, Blackshields G, Brown N, R... States reconstruction for stigma position and style length about 2mm ( Fig 2 ) are! Along the coast of east Australia is difficult to explain without positing an additional barrier in this.!