Smaller quantities are also collected in northern Chile. Raw material: Fresh material from Ecklonia maxima 34.26% Additives: Preservatives and inert materials 65.74% 3. Large and thick assemblages of brown algae are often found in temperate waters, creating “underwater forests.” Brown algae, particularly S. japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, are presently cultured extensively in Japan, Korea, and China, although some are harvested from natural stocks. No chemicals or preservatives are added. Chemical name: Ecklonia maxima seaweed extract Manufacturer: Kelp Products (Pty) Ltd. P O Box 325 Simon’s Town South Africa (021) 786 2090 2. For alginate extraction, they are regarded as the raw material of last resort. Foreign matter < 3 %. 1.2 illustrates the main types of brown seaweeds used for alginate production. It has been proposed that algae contribute to the maintenance of health through their nutritional benefits. Please click "Know More" below, you really need to be aware of the facts ! It soothes red irritated skin… Two other kelp species belonging to the genus Ecklonia (i.e., E. cava and E. stolonifera) are also being subjected to culture development in Korea. Regarding the individual species, Ascophyllum seaweeds are mainly harvested in Ireland, Norway, France, and the United Kingdom, whereas Durvillaea is harvested in Australia and Chile. (B) The 3-linked, preponderantly 4-sulfated fucoidan from E. kurome. 33.3). Common structures in fucoidans from brown algae. If you boil the … M. pyrifera is harvested from offshore beds that stretch from Monterey in California, United States, to Bahia Asuncion in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Structure of phlorotannin from Ecklonia cava (1: fucodiphlorethol G; 3: triphlorethol-A). Fig. (2003) studied the fucoidan derived from brown algae and other common fucoidans (Fig. Iceland is also a source of L. digitata for the alginate industry in Scotland. The E. cava extract has the capability to reduce the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. (C) The quasirepeat unit identified in fucoidan from C. filum. Two phlorotannins namely dieckol and 1-(3′,5′-dihydroxyphenoxy)-7-(2′,4′,6′-trihydroxyphenoxy) 2,4,9-trihydroxydibenzo-1,4,-dioxin isolated from the methanol extract of marine brown alga, Ecklonia cava, have been reported to suppress both the protein and gene expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 in human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). Each gram contains 500 mg CEM-K. CEM-K is a proprietary extract of ecklonia maxima. Although wild brown seaweeds can be found in large quantities in many parts of the world, the alginate industry relies heavily on cultivated seaweeds rather than natural sources. Pharmacokinetic properties. XXXV. Biomass production of natural beds in the tropics is largely unknown but can reach 15.6 kg/m2 (wet weight) in the Philippines (Marquez et al., 2014). Laminaria hyperborea is mainly from Norway, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and France. The alginate content is usually low compared with the previously listed genera, and the quality of the alginate is poor. One product currently being marketed is prepared from the stipes of Ecklonia maxima from South Africa . Nevertheless, Marquez et al. It is estimated that the total quantity of wild seaweed stock in the Norwegian seacoast is around 50–60 million tons, with 7 million tons washed to the shoreline annually. Se-Kwon Kim, ... Xifeng Li, in Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 2011. The studies listed focus on both hydroalcoholic extracts and purified fractions of a few eckols. Experimental cultivation of Ecklonia in South Africa has been successful, with growth of young plants on rafts. It has been suggested that phlorotannins derived from marine brown algae might be useful in the development of novel hepatoprotective agents (Kim et al., 2005). PubMed:Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed. There are two main Lessonia species for alginate extraction. Therefore, antioxidative therapeutics have great demand to act against free radicals. (2010) estimated the biomass of Ecklonia maxima found in deep waters of some areas in South Africa at ∼16.1 kg wet wt/m 2. (2010) determined the structure of fucoidan extracted from brown algae U. pinnatifida and concluded that this fucoidan is sulfated galactofucan containing β-d-galactopyranose and α-l-fucopyranose at near equal amounts (44.6 and 50.9 mol%). After successfully developing kelp-based products for use in agriculture, he discovered that sea kelp could have benefits for skin too. On the other hand, reports suggest that some other brown alga contain higher amount of phloroglucinol (Koivikko et al., 2005) and have exhibited several medicinally beneficial effects in vitro. 33.4). The same structure has been identified in the fucoidan of F. evanescens. Hence, brown algae can be recommended as foods with medicinal values that can aid for skin care. Usually, their molecular sizes range from 126 to 650 kDa (Ragan and Glombitza, 1986). 33.3), a new compound isolated from the methanol extract of E. cava, a brown alga, collected offshore in Jeju Island by Ham et al. William H. Gerwick, in Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry, 1999. Brown algae containing fucoidan, H.R.B. (2000) reported that in Ireland, cultured Alaria esculenta, also a kelp species, has a total yield of ∼914 kg/m2 (Kraan et al., 2000). Numbers of studies have shown the radical scavenging potential of phlorotannins isolated from marine brown algae. (1997) and Hupel et al. In the late 1980s, production fell as some farmers switched to the more lucrative but risky farming of shrimp. These phlorotannins (Fig. Laurencia obtusa (E1) and Caulerpa prolifera (E2) were effective against aflatoxin B1. Harvesting done in accordance with client specifications. As shown in Table 8.1, most of the phlorotannin compounds have shown more potent antioxidant activities than commercially available antioxidants α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyl-anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). 1.4 shows the distribution of wild brown seaweeds around the world. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed, together with an increase in total antioxidant capacity and in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Among them, brown algae serve as an important bioresource of antioxidative phlorotannins with significant pharmaceutical potential. Figure 1.3. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080912837000072, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027721000129, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080925677500118, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857095121500072, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123876690000107, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123876690000338, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857095121500126, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128133125000017, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123876690000089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186972000167, Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites Including Fatty Acids and Their Derivatives, Lessonia trabeculata, a Subtidal Bottom Kelp in Northern Chile: A Case Study for a Structural and Geographical Comparison, Coastal Plant Communities of Latin America, Antioxidant properties of algal components and fractions, Functional Ingredients from Algae for Foods and Nutraceuticals, Minh Hong Thi Nguyen, ... Se-Kwon Kim, in, Gastric and hepatic protective effects of algal components, Gian Powell B. Marquez, ... Tatsuya Hasegawa, in. Thus, E. cava is useful for preventing the development of diabetic liver fibrosis (Kim et al., 2005). It has been established that oxidative damage occurs in different pathologies including diabetes, and diabetic models can be used as a tool to establish antioxidant activities. Brown seaweeds are used for the extraction of alginate, which represents a broad group of biomaterials based on the alkali or alkaline earth salts of alginic acid, with the sodium salt being the most widely used. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction of Ecklonia stolonifera revealed several phlorotannins, such as phloroglucinol, eckstolonol, eckol, phlorofucofuroeckol A, and dieckol. Antibiotics from Algae. L. hyperborea is also found on the west coast of Ireland, the Outer Hebrides, and the Orkney Islands in Scotland. Therefore, they have received the greatest attention and have been investigated extensively since they are high free radical scavengers in nature and less toxic than synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT (Jung et al., 2008). To get the best results from the compounds within this plant, that have known anti-inflammatory properties, Dermikelp ® uses a patented extraction process. Plants are smaller where summer water temperatures rise to 19°C, but grow best where the temperature does not rise above 15°C. E. stolonifera Okamura has been found to have promising hepatoprotective activity. Potential antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss. Similarly, phlorotannins namely fucofuroeckol-A and eckol that are derived from Eisenia bicyclis had shown MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities in HT1080 cells. We explored variation in preharvest conditions in a small study of two Namibian kelps (Laminaria pallida and Ecklonia maxima), and found that iodine content was lowest in sun-bleached blades (514 +/- 42 microg/g), and highest amount in freshly cut juvenile blades (6571 +/- 715 microg/g). Rothman et al. Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found). Pack size: 25g. Vetlomar™ EQ Allergy Itch Relief Cream contains the patented CEM-K active ingredient, sustainably sourced from the giant sea kelp species, Ecklonia maxima, to manage a horses allergic skin reactions. H. incrassata supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in plaque size in the brachiocephalic artery, decreased macrophage infiltration and preservation of tunica media smooth muscle cells. (2011) have also studied on the photoprotective effect of dieckol from E. cava using human epithelial keratinocytes (HaCat) and have found that dieckol treatment (100 μM) on UVB irradiated cells induces the cell survival up to 88.42%. Rothman et al. is a member of the genus . Ecklonia species are found in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, but are currently only collected in South Africa. (2011) evaluated the antiatherogenic effect of hydrophilic extracts and phenolic-rich fractions from H. incrassata using Apo E −/− mice on a high fat diet, which was supplemented with 550 mg lyophilized seaweed/kg/day for 8 weeks. Natural Skin Therapy Check Collection. Moreover, Ko et al. The latter species appears to have a higher biomass yield (12.7 kg/m culture rope) (Hwang et al., 2013). The phlorotannin derivatives showed the regulation of osteosarcoma differentiation by increasing ALP activity, mineralization, total protein, and collagen synthesis in human osteosarcoma cell (MG-63 cells). Ecklonia maxima, De Hoop specimen showing the hollow stipe typical of this species. PubMed:The effect of seaweed Ecklonia maxima extract and mineral nitrogen … Note: The only attached Ecklonia maxima known to occur on the south coast is the one small population that has appeared relatively recently at De Hoop (see Bolton et al. Prior to that, China had imported its needs from the naturally growing resources in Japan and the Republic of Korea. J. Mancini-Filho, ... A.M.O. Rich in alginates, amino acids, enzymes and vitamins, ecklonia maxima sea kelp helps to hydrate skin. J. Fleurence, E. Ar Gall, in Seaweed in Health and Disease Prevention, 2016. Dieckol was found to be the most potent phlorotannin to protect the cells from UVB irradiation (50 mJ cm− 2). Costa-Mugica et al. The potential antioxidant activities of three phlorotannins (phloroglucinol, eckol, and dieckol) purified from E. cava is reported to exhibit notable radical scavenging activities; in particular, eckol has been found to exhibit a superior scavenging activity for free radicals and inhibit DNA damage. Phlorotannins are oligomeric compounds using phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) as a basic unit. 25g. In Chile, open-sea-cultured hybrids of Macrocystis produced 66 kg/m culture rope (Westermeier et al., 2011) while landings of Macrocystis in Mexico are approximately 20,000 tons (Robledo, 2006). Durvillaea is found only in the Southern Hemisphere and grows best in rough water, near the top of the sublittoral zone, on rocky shores or offshore reefs. Vasquez, in Coastal Plant Communities of Latin America, 1992. [4,6,7]. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION Possible exposure: Ingestion, inhalation and skin contact Eye contact: Non-irritant Skin contact: Non-irritant Ingestion: Non-toxic Inhalation: Non-toxic Distribution of wild brown seaweeds around the world. However, those early products from China had a low guluronic to mannuronic acid (G/M) ratio, which yields weakly gelling alginates, and their performance is acceptable only for industrial products such as textile printing and paper coating. US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information: cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning. There are three main species of Laminaria seaweeds, i.e., L. digitata, L. hyperborea, and Laminaria saccharina. However, the effects of this compound on Ca-mineralization of osteoblasts were yet to be investigated. High in naturally occurring iodine and other trace elements and minerals, ecklonia maxima pulls toxins from the skin and may decrease some swelling. Other genera (Cystoseira, Nereocystis, Alaria, Pterygophora) form equally dense marine forests, principally in the Northern Hemisphere (Dayton, 1985a; Schiel and Foster, 1986). Similarly, dieckol and eckol isolated from Ecklonia stolonifera have inhibited the expression of MMP-1 in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell, in vitro (Joe et al., 2006). In this study, it has been suggested that fucofuroeckol-A and eckol exhibited a significant inhibitory activity on the NF-κB expression and also they had a considerable inhibitory effect on AP-1 expression, thus inhibiting the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via blocking the transcription of both NF-κB and AP-1 (Lee, 2010). Research into seaweeds as an antioxidant source has also focused on genetically modified animals, which express certain pathologies or specific symptoms including oxidative stress. L. saccharina often grows in close association with L. digitata, and is sometimes harvested at the same time. Further, they have studied this promising photoprotective effect of dieckol using zebrafish as an alternate animal model system. 33.4. Quantity in pack: 1. It is reported that sun-damaged skin shows significantly elevated levels of active gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) than intrinsically aged skin (Chung et al., 2001). In Norway, L. digitata grows in masses at the lower end of the eulittoral zone and was previously an important source for the Norwegian alginate industry. Hence, members of brown seaweeds can be recommended as medicinal foods because of the abundant presence of polyphenolic compounds that aids for the betterment of human health. Irradiated HDF cells compound on Ca-mineralization of osteoblasts were yet to be a causal factor in atherosclerosis progression:... -2,4,9-Trihydroxydibenzo-1,4-Dioxin ), the ROS that includes hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and BMP-2 were increased the! 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