Hooper, Nicholas; Bennett, Matthew (1996). Bohemond was initially successful, defeating Alexius in several battles, but was defeated by Alexius outside Larissa. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. The Battle of Dyrrhachium took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by Alexius I, and the Normans under Robert Guiscard. "[27] He lost about 5,000 of his men, including most of the Varangians. This was his business in Salerno before he arrived in Otranto. By the end of Julius Caesar's first year as consul he had accumulated a large list of lawsuits. It consisted of Thracian and Macedonian tagmata, which numbered about 5,000 men; the elite excubitors and vestiaritai units, which numbered around 1,000 men; a force of Manichaeans which comprised 2,800 men, Thessalian cavalry, Balkan conscripts, Armenian infantry and other light troops. [25], Meanwhile, George Palaeologus sortied out of Dyrrhachium, but failed to save the situation. In command of the garrison at Dyrrhachium was the experienced general George Palaeologus, sent by Alexius with orders to hold out at all costs while Alexius himself mustered an army to relieve the city. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle of Caesar's Civil War in the area of the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate.The battle was indecisive but is regarded as a victory for Pompey. The army numbered 30,000 men, backed up by 1,300 Norman knights. He split his army into three divisions, with the left wing under the command of Gregory Pakourianos, the right wing under the command of Nikephoros Melissenos, and himself in command of the centre. Caesar swiftly reinforced the breach with 4,000 men. Twelve cohorts under Mark Antony then counterattacked, re-securing part of the wall and pushing Pompey's disordered forces back. With their massive battle axes, the Varangians attacked the Norman knights, who were driven away after their horses panicked. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. Both armies now prepared for the decisive battle which was fought four days later on 9 August 48 BC. The Byzantine recovery began the Komnenian restoration. At two of these forts one cohort under Lucius Minucius Basilus and three cohorts under Gaius Volcatius Tullus put up stiff resistance against five of Pompey's legions until they were relieved by a force of two legions from the main camp under Publius Cornelius Sulla. The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. On October 18, the Normans engaged a Byzantine army under Alexius I Comnenus outside Dyrrhachium. From all quarters of Lombardy and Apulia he gathered them, over age and under age, pitiable objects who had never seen armour in their dreams, but then clad in breastplates and carrying shields, awkwardly drawing bows to which they were completely unused and following flat on the ground when they were allowed to march.....Yet, however unused to soldiering they were, he (Robert Guiscard) trained them daily and hammered his recruits into a disciplined force. The experienced Venetian navy attacked in a close formation known as "sea harbour" and together with their use of Greek fire "bombs", the Norman line scattered, and the Venetian fleet sailed into Dyrrhachium's harbour. Although Pompey reached Antony first Caesar was right on his heels and Pompey prudently moved his forces to Dyrrachium to prevent becoming caught between the two forces. Moreover, prior to the end of his five years as proconsul of Gaul and Illyricum, Caesar assisted his allies Crassus and Pompey in being elected consuls, who in turn extended his pro-consulship for a further five years. They responded by recapturing Dyrrhachium and Corfu and returning them to the Byzantine Empire. However, Bohemond defeated Alexius in two battles: one near Arta and the other near Ioannina. In 50 BC, at his Proconsular term's expiry, the Senate forbade Caesar's standing for election in absentia for a second consulship and because of this, Caesar thought he would be prosecuted and rendered politically marginalised if he entered Rome without consular immunity or his army. ", The Norman fleet of 150 ships including 60 horse transports set off towards the Byzantine Empire at the end of May 1081. He also learned that the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV, was at the gates of Rome and besieging Pope Gregory VII, a Norman ally. Two Gallic noblemen were caught stealing the pay from auxiliary cavalry under their command, but managed to escape to Pompey. [35] The demoralised and unpaid Norman army returned to the coast and sailed back to Italy. [9] In 1059, the Pope made Robert Guiscard, of the Hauteville family, Duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. At Dyrrhachium (Durrës in modern Albania) Caesar found Pompey entrenched with an army three times as large) found : Dupuy encyc. He sent some of his cohorts to reinforce the garrisons of Apollonia and Oricum, and propelled the bulk of his remaining troops into Thessaly. The few remaining Varangians fled into the church of the Archangel Michael. However, the Senate ordered him to resign command of his army. Albania relief location map.jpg 685 × 1,002; 406 KB As they retreated, Alexius was separated from his guard and was attacked by Norman soldiers. Battle of Pharsalus. hist. The Battle of Dyrrhachium took place on October 18, 1081. His army laid siege to Dyrrhachium, but his fleet was defeated by the Venetians. The Battle of Dyrrhachium in February 1018 was a part of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars. [25], "Alexius was undoubtedly a good tactician, but he was badly let down by the indisciplined rush to pursue the beaten enemy wings, a cardinal sin in the Byzantine tactical manuals. However, his Master of the Horse Marc Antony fired up his troops and after several attempts evaded Libo's blockade and managed to land at Nympheum (Shëngjin in Albania) with four more legions. The Caesarian general Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus and the Pompeian general Scipio Nasica were both in that country with their respective armies, and both Caesar and Pompey then aimed to link up with their corresponding forces. Robert was then forced to leave Greece to deal with an attack on his ally, the Pope by the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV (r. 1084–1105). [11] Guiscard accepted the offer and sent his daughter to Constantinople. Pompey found it difficult with the limited land he controlled to create enough fodder for his horses, and other supplies such as fresh water became more and more difficult to maintain. Although Caesar's counterattack was initially successful, Pompey's forces were simply too numerous. Henry responded by invading Italy and attacking the Pope. On October 18, the Normans engaged the Byzantine army outside Dyrrhachium. The battle began with the Byzantine right wing routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. The battle ended in a Norman victory, with Alexios I Komnenos routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. Norman knights in the centre attacked the Byzantine centre and routed it, causing the bulk of the Byzantine army to rout. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. Battle of Dyrrhachium Emperor Alexius arrived in the vicinity of the besieged city in mid-October. The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. However, this situation did assist Caesar because the Adriatic was sufficiently treacherous to deter the war galleys of Pompey's fleet, commanded by Caesar's former co-consul Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, at Corfu. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar’s Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate.The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. [2] The Battle at Dyrrachium preceded the Battle of Pharsalus which was the decisive turning point in the Civil War leading to a Caesarian victory. After failing to subdue his enemies at Dyrrhachium (now Dürres, Albania), Caesar clashed with Pompey somewhere near Pharsalus (now Fársala, Greece). [1] A majority of the senior officers, including Palaeologus, urged caution, noting that time was with the Emperor. Instead, as was usual for a consul at the end of his term, Caesar obtained a proconsul position, or governorship, over the territories of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum (modern day Albania), with the later addition of Transalpine Gaul. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). Roman law gave government officials immunity from prosecution but only during their term of office. At Dyrrachium Pompey held a strong defensive position; his back was guarded by the sea, and at his front there were hills that commanded the immediate area. Bibulus died while conducting this blockade and no overall naval commander was appointed by Pompey. [10], Pompey mounted a frontal attack of six legions against Caesar's line where it joined the sea and where the IX legion was stationed. His luck was not with him and the rough seas and storms forced him back. : p. 108 (48, May 20, Battle of Dyrrhachium) found : Harbottle dict. The Bat­tle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a bat­tle dur­ing Cae­sar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Al­ba­nia). [34] Bohemond advanced with his army against the city of Larissa. It happened as the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Vladislav tried to establish his power on the southeastern coast of the Adriatic Sea . The garrison at Dyrrhachium managed to hold out all summer, despite Robert's catapults, ballistae and siege tower. While Guiscard was in Kastoria, messengers arrived from Italy, bearing news that Apulia, Calabria, and Campania were in revolt. The Battle of Dyrrhachium in February 1018 was a part of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars.It happened as the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Vladislav tried to establish his power on the southeastern coast of the Adriatic Sea.He led an army against Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës, in Albania) and besieged it, but was killed during a counterattack of the city’s defenders. The Battle of Dyrrhachium was one of the greatest risks taken by Julius Caesar in his war with Gnaeus Pompey, who was allied with almost the entire Senate. Upon entering Thessaly, Caesar captured the town of Gomphi and regrouped with Domitius, allowing his men to resupply, rest and then move towards Pharsalus. Once he became a private citizen Caesar knew he would be vulnerable. The archers continued this tactic until the army neared contact. The two ancient leaders fought against each other for absolute power over the Roman Republic. [24], In the meantime, the Byzantine right and centre had been engaging in skirmishes with the Normans opposite them. Caesar's blunder had put him in the worst possible position any army could find itself. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës in Albania), the major Byzantine stronghold in the western Balkans, and ended in a Norman victory. After gathering the remainder of his forces from Transalpine Gaul (modern day France) he marched into Spain and subdued enough of the country so that it wouldn't intervene during his campaign against Pompey. [6], Caesar held the outlying farmland but it had been picked clean and Pompey, with the sea at his back, was able to be resupplied by ship. D'Amato, Raffaele; Rava, Giuseppe (2010). [9] At the southern end of the circumvallation, where it came close to the sea, Caesar was building a second wall 200 metres south of the main one to protect his defenders from a sea-borne attack from the rear, but it was unfinished and the area between the walls was undefended from the seaward side. The Varangians stood their ground while the Byzantine left, including some of Alexius' elite troops, attacked the Normans. With these two men on his side, Pompey was able to discover the weakest point in Caesar's wall. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). His back was guarded by the sea, and at his front there were hills that commanded the immediate area. [29], In February 1082, Dyrrhachium fell after a Venetian or Amalfian citizen opened the gates to the Normans. He then turned his full attention to Pompey. [5] Historian Robert Holmes states: "The new knightly tactic of charging with the lance couched – tucked firmly under the arm to unite the impact of man and horse – proved a battle-winner. When Michael was deposed, Robert took this as an excuse to invade the Byzantine Empire in 1081. The emperor wanted to attack immediately when he arrived, against the advice of Palaeologus and other officers. Offended by Caesar's response, the Senate demanded he immediately disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. He had other problems as well; Pompey had left him with no ships to cross the Adriatic, and Spain had begun to mobilize against Caesar. During the morning Pompey consolidated his newly-won position by building a camp south of the Caesarian walls and put five of his legions there, he then sent the sixth to occupy a small camp between the walls that had been abandoned by Caesar, and enlarged the defences. The battle began with the Byzantine right wing routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. [19] The city was well defended on a long, narrow peninsula running parallel to the coast, but separated by marshlands. Pompey also sent some auxiliaries and light infantry to attack by sea. As it was winter Bibulus was unprepared and Caesar was able to sail through the blockade easily and form a beachhead at Epirus with the first half of his army. It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. The imperial camp, which had been left unguarded, fell to the Normans. Soon afterwards the Norman army was afflicted with disease, which, according to Anna Comnena, may have killed up to 10 000 men. Norman losses are unknown, but John Haldon claims they are substantial as both wings broke and fled. So dire was his situation that he made several attempts to discuss peace with Pompey but was refused at every channel. [18], Meanwhile, when Alexius heard that the Normans were preparing to invade Byzantine territory, he sent an ambassador to the Doge of Venice, Domenico Selvo, requesting aid and offering trading rights in return. Now it was Pompey who was at a disavantage as his troops began to fraternize with the Caeserion forces, and Caesar's former legate who had left him, Labienus had to put a stop to it. By January of 48 BC, Caesar decided there was no time like the present and decided to make a surprise winter crossing, to offset the advantage that … [10], By 1071, Robert, together with his brother Roger, had taken over the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, Bari. Guiscard brought his army onto the peninsula and pitched camp outside the city walls. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). The Normans first arrived in Southern Italy in 1015 from northern France and served local Lombard lords as mercenaries against the Byzantine Empire. [8], By midsummer, though, Pompey had a fortunate stroke of luck. The town became the center of a series of military engagements during the Second Civil War (49-48), in which Julius Caesar fought against Pompey the Great. [8] As they were paid with lands, soon they were powerful enough to challenge Papal authority; in 1054, they defeated the Pope at the Battle of Civitate, forcing him to acknowledge their authority. Raising an army of 15,000 Normans and mercenary auxiliaries, Robert and his son Bohemond launched a fleet toward the Byzantine coast. The Varangians soon became separated from the main force and exhausted so they were in no position to resist an assault. [36] Meanwhile, Alexius granted the Venetians a commercial colony in Constantinople, as well as exemption from trading duties in return for their renewed aid. Caesar records one battle in particular, fought in mid-June, for the control of the vital hill of Paliama, some three miles south of Pompey's camp. The Battle of Dyrrhachium, 1081 With southern Italy and Sicily firmly under Norman control, Robert Guiscard invaded Byzantine Illyria in 1081. "[12], Caesar, by various stratagems, managed to retreat south with the remainder of his army and avoided being caught by the pursuing cavalry of Pompey. The Turks who had been lent to him by the Seljuk Sultan Suleyman I followed Constantine's example and deserted. bat. It was fought be­tween Julius Cae­sar and an army led by Gnaeus Pom­pey who had the back­ing of the ma­jor­ity of the Roman Sen­ate. Alexius, however, favoured an immediate assault, hoping to catch Guiscard's army from the rear, while they were still besieging the city. Alexius moved his army to the hills opposite the city, planning to attack the Normans the next day. Alexius also withdrew the tagmas from Heraclea Pontica and the remaining Byzantine holdings in Asia Minor and by doing so, he effectively left them to be overrun by the Turks. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle of Caesar's Civil War in the area of the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). [7] Even so, the situation of the Dyrrhachium garrison grew desperate because of the effects of Norman siege weapons. mil. This left Bohemond in control of Macedonia and nearly all of Thessaly. [22], Meanwhile, a Byzantine fleet arrived and – after joining with the Venetian fleet – attacked the Norman fleet, which was again routed. Meanwhile, Alexius had mustered a new army and with 7,000 Seljuk Turks sent by the Sultan, he advanced on the Normans at Larissa and defeated them. According to Plutarch, Caesar remarked on that decision saying, "Today the victory had been the enemy's, had there been any one among them to gain it. [24], The Varangians had been ordered to march just in front of the main line with a strong division of archers a little behind them. [25], Alexius and his guards resisted as long as they could before retreating. If Pompey's army was not to be destroyed by disease during the summer and lose all its animals, Caesar's siege-works had to be breached. These victories returned the Empire to its previous status quo and marked the beginning of the Komnenian restoration. However, with the collapse of the Norman right, the knights were in danger of being outflanked. Battle of Pharsalus, (48 bce), the decisive engagement in the Roman civil war (49–45 bce) between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. DYRRHACHIUM: LESNIKIA R (48) – Second Civil W ar. Pompey sent a large force of infantry and 3,000 cavalry to outflank Caesar's right wing. In this way, he would maintain his imperium and thereby not be vulnerable to lawsuits. Forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained by the Normans in the campaign. Guiscard hoped the feint would draw up the Varangians; however, this plan failed when the cavalry was forced back by the archers. His ships were destroyed in a brief naval battle, while at the same time, the garrison of Dyrrhachium, led by George Palaeologus, defeated the Normans outside the city and destroyed their siege tower. However, Libo could not sustain this position because of a lack of water.[3]. After his defeat at Dyrrhachium in July of 48 BC, Caesar moved swiftly into Thessaly, incorporating the towns of the region under his control. dyrrhachium (durazzo/ epidamnos), siege and battle of, 1081-2 Dyrrhachium (Durazzo to Italians, Epidamnos to Greeks) was the capital of Illyria, and is modern Durres in Albania. The counterattack on Pompey's camp disintegrated completely. Another sally succeeded in destroying Robert's siege tower. [6], Deprived of his left wing (still in pursuit of the Norman right), Alexius was exposed in the centre. Pompey responded with wall and fortifications of his own to prevent any further advancement. Travel across the Adriatic Sea to Greece would ordinarily be tricky, but was made more so given that it was winter. [31] Alexius had negotiated with Henry and given him 360,000 gold pieces in return for an alliance. Guiscard sent his heavy cavalry against the Byzantine centre. According to Comnena, Alexius had about 20,000 men; historian John Haldon puts the army's size between 18,000 to 20,000 men, while John Birkenmeier estimates it between 20,000–25,000 men. The Norman formation disintegrated and the routed Normans fled towards the beach. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. This charge broke the Byzantine lines and caused them to rout. Caesar gives his own losses at about 1,000; Pompey's were presumably less. [37], Coordinates: 41°18′00″N 19°30′00″E / 41.3°N 19.5°E / 41.3; 19.5. However, in 1078, Michael was overthrown by Nicephorus Botaneiates, an event that destroyed any chances Helena had for the throne. It was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans of southern Italy. Caesar first ordered his troops on the right to stand firm, but then saw the danger of being outflanked. [4], Between these two fortifications a no man's land was created which saw constant skirmishes with little or no gain. His exhausted and poorly supplied army was able to secure new sources of food and essentially become re-energized for the continuing campaign. His army had no way to resupply from Rome due to the naval blockade, he couldn't resupply locally as Greece was pro-Pompey and closed their gates to Caesar, and his army was only at half strength. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo ), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard,Duke of Apulia and Calabria. It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. This made an assault on the position nearly impossible. It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. [33] With this money, Alexius mustered an army near Thessalonica and went to fight Bohemond. What was unusual was the length of Caesar's term as proconsul, which was for five years instead of the usual one year. [20] However, as Robert's fleet sailed to Dyrrhachium, it was hit by a storm and lost several ships. [7], At Dyrrachium Caesar only just escaped the ambush Pompey had set for him. Robert left his son Bohemond in charge of the army in Greece. The defense of the citadel was left to the Venetians, while the city itself was left to an Albanian, Komiskortes. By the next year, they conquered all of Sicily, ending the Islamic Emirate of Sicily. Historian Jonathan Harris states that the defeat was "every bit as severe as that at Manzikert. Pompey decided to try and lure Caesar away from the fortifications by means of a false message that some of the inhabitants of Dyrrachium were prepared to betray the town to him, and meanwhile lauch a three-pronged attack against forts in the centre of the siege-line. His motives for doing so were three-fold: to prevent Pompey from getting fodder for his animals; to render his cavalry ineffective and thus protect his own foraging parties; and to reduce Pompey's standing in the eyes of the foreigners and his own men by putting him on the defensive and making him openly refuse battle. The Battle at Dyrrachium preceded the Battle of Pharsalus which was the decisive turning point in the Civil War leading to a Caesarian victory. Between these two fortifications a no mans land was creat… In late 49 BC, Caesar and his 12 legions arrived at Brundisium, where he hoped to secure passage to Greece. Bibulus, however, was able to block Caesar's attempt to sail his reinforcements stuck at Brundisium. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, http://books.google.com/books?id=p8OOoGWRC2EC, http://books.google.com/books?id=ispoQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=kZ8XAAAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=rKj8_W9wL7kC, http://books.google.com/books?id=tUnscbUKyJUC, http://books.google.com/books?id=OycjAQAAIAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=oK9mAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=uUGTQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=49HOSAAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=HUpoAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=IzB1QgAACAAJ, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dyrrhachium_(1081)?oldid=4971621. After this victory, the Normans took Dyrrhachium in February 1082 and advanced inland, capturing most of Macedonia and Thessaly. Was hit by a storm and lost several ships military command only if Pompey followed suit end of Julius and... 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