Theoktistos was a leading Byzantine official during the second quarter of the 9th century and the de facto head of the regency for the underage Michael III from 842 until his dismissal and murder in 855. This act to mov… Petronas was a notable Byzantine general and leading aristocrat during the mid-9th century. The subsequent battle, ending in a Byzantine victory and the emir's death on the field, was followed by a successful Byzantine counteroffensive across the border. [13][15] The battle was bloody with many casualties on both sides; according to the Persian historian al-Tabari, only a thousand of Umar's army survived. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or Battle of Po(r)son (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος) was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). In 855, Petronas and Bardas encouraged Michael III to seize control of the government: Theoktistos was murdered, Theodora banished to a monastery, Bardas became Michael's chief minister, and Petronas was tasked with the war against the Arabs. [27][29], The removal of the eastern threat and the rise of the Byzantines' confidence also opened up opportunities in the west, where the Bulgarian ruler Boris (r. 852–889) had been negotiating with the Pope and Louis the German (r. 817–876) for a possible conversion of himself and his pagan people to Christianity. Nevertheless, the Arabs managed to escape the Byzantines and continue their raid north into the Armeniac Theme, eventually reaching the Black Sea and sacking the port city of Amisos. In 716, after years of preparations, the Arabs, led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, invaded Byzantine Asia Minor. Byzantine Battles and Byzantine Emperors - A quick guide. The Arabs initially hoped to exploit Byzantine civil strife and made common cause with the general Leo III the Isaurian, who had risen up against Emperor Theodosius III. There was little in the first year of the war to suggest that submarines were a major issue. Amazon.ae: Paulicianism: Battle of Lalakaon, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Divri I, Petrus Siculus: Books, LLC, Books, LLC: Books LLC The potential expansion of Rome's ecclesiastic influence to Constantinople's doorstep could not be tolerated by the Byzantine government. Skip to main content. [35]. In 3 BBY, the Phoenix Cell discovered the planet Atollon due to the efforts of the rebel C1-series astromech droid Chopper and the former Imperial inventory droid AP-5. [32][33] Strong influences can be found in episodes in the Arab, and later Turkish, epic cycles around Battal Ghazi, as well as an episode in the One Thousand and One Nights.[34]. [32] A battle in the Byzantine epic cycle around Digenis Akritas is also reminiscent of the events at Lalakaon, as the eponymous hero surrounds an Arab army near Malakopeia. According to al-Tabari, the emperor commanded these forces in person, but this is not supported by Byzantine sources. The subsequent battle ended in a complete Byzantine victory and the death of the Emir on the field, and was followed by a successful Byzantine counteroffensive across the border. This expansion of Rome's ecclesiastic influence up to Constantinople's very doorstep could not be tolerated by the Byzantine government. [6][7] Melitene, in particular, was a major threat to Byzantium as its location on the western side of the Anti-Taurus range allowed direct access to the Anatolian plateau. Given the bias against Michael by the historians writing during the Macedonian dynasty, this may be a deliberate omission. Battle of Dazar'alor, previously of the working titles (The) Burning of Zuldazar and Siege of Zuldazar (or, as I was calling it, The Burning Siege of Zuldazar), is the second Raid coming in the Battle for Azeroth expansion, set to release January 22nd, 2019, with BFA Season 2 some time in the beginning of 2019, a bit after the Dec 11th release of 8.1. [7] [8], Umar struck again during the summer of 863, joining forces with Abbasid general Ja'far ibn Dinar al-Khayyat (probably the governor of Tarsus) for a successful raid into Cappadocia. These expeditions, launched from bases in the Arab frontier zone almost annually, eventually acquired a quasi-ritualistic character as part of the Muslim jihad (holy war). Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, http://books.google.com/books?id=QC03pKNpfaoC, http://books.google.com/books?id=OycjAQAAIAAJ, "The Emperor Michael III and the Battle of Bishop’s Meadow (A.D. 863)", http://web.archive.org/web/20070206192416/http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/pdfs/huxley.pdf, http://books.google.com/books?id=jlTPAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=bFh-ASmKksYC, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Lalakaon?oldid=4490568. Battle of Lalakaon Nominator (s): Constantine ✍ This is an old article (mostly written in 2009, when it also passed GA) on an important turning-point in the Arab-Byzantine Wars. Battle of Lalakaon Top # 5 Facts. The Byzantine success had another corollary: deliverance from constant Arab pressure on the eastern frontier allowed the Byzantine government to concentrate on affairs in Europe, and, in particular, neighboring Bulgaria. [16] [24] [25] The rout was complete, with most of the Arab army (and Umar) falling in battle. The Battle of Mauropotamos was fought in 844, between the armies of the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate, at Mauropotamos. The Byzantine regent, Theoktistos, headed the army that went to meet the invasion but was heavily defeated, and many of his officers defected to the Arabs. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or the Battle of Poson (or Porson) (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος)[1] was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). [13] [16] With the approach of the Byzantine armies, the only escape route open to the emir and his men was dominated by a strategically located hill. Today in Middle Eastern history: the Battle of Lalakaon (863) September 3, 2020 September 5, 2020 ~ DWD. Search. These deadly machines were able to recycle an entire world's surface to create weapons of w… [5], During the 850s the most significant threats to the Byzantine Empire were the emirate of Melitene (Malatya), under Umar al-Aqta; the emirate of Tarsus, under Ali ibn Yahya ("Ali the Armenian"); the emirate of Qaliqala (Theodosiopolis, modern Erzurum), and the Paulicians of Tephrike, led by Karbeas. He was surprised, however, at Krasos and heavily defeated, barely escaping with his own life. The Byzantine army was led by Petronas, the uncle of Emperor Michael III (r. 842– The Battle of Bathys Ryax was fought in 872 or 878 between the Byzantine Empire and the Paulicians. Khalid ibn al-Walid, commander of Muslim army, wrote to all commanders to march at once and concentrate at Ajnadayn. Karbeas, also Karbaias (Καρβαίας), was a Paulician leader, who, following the anti-Paulician pogroms in 843, abandoned his service in the Byzantine army and went over to the Arabs. The Byzantine victory at Lalakaon altered the strategic balance in the region, and heralded the beginning of Byzantium's century-long offensive in the East. [22] [26], The Byzantines moved quickly to take advantage of their victory; a Byzantine army invaded Arab-held Armenia and, sometime in October or November, defeated and killed Emir Ali ibn Yahya. The success of the Battle of Lalakaon and its follow-up operations enabled the Empire to focus its might against Bulgaria, leading to its successful Christianization. In late summer 804, the Abbasids had invaded Byzantine Asia Minor for one of their customary raids, and Nikephoros set out to meet them. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek : Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος), or Poson or Porson (Greek : Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος), [1] was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). The expedition took place in southeastern and central Asia Minor, where the Abbasid and Byzantine empires shared a long land border. Military conflicts similar to or like Battle of Lalakaon. Share. He was the second emperor of the Amorian dynasty and the last emperor to support iconoclasm. The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars. The Byzantines though stood firm, giving the other two Byzantine wings time to close in and attack the Arab army's exposed rear and flanks. Six years after his original death at the Battle of Endor, Emperor Palpatine returned in a clone body. [5], In the 850s, the most persistent threats to the Empire were the emirate of Melitene (Malatya) under Umar al-Aqta, the emirate of Tarsus under Ali ibn Yahya ("Ali the Armenian"), the emirate of Qaliqala (Theodosiopolis, modern Erzurum) and the Paulicians of Tephrike under their leader Karbeas. [16][20][21], The coordination of all these forces was not easy, but the Byzantine armies, marching from three directions, were able to converge on the same day (September 2) and surround Umar's smaller army at a location called Poson (Πόσων) or Porson (Πόρσων) near the Lalakaon River. Fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia . Paulicianism: Battle of Lalakaon, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Divri I, Petrus Siculus: Amazon.es: LLC Books: Libros en idiomas extranjeros The Byzantine armywas led by Petronas, the uncle of Emperor Michael III(r. 842–867), although Arab sources also mention the presence of Emperor Michael … CBC television battleoftheblades - Canada's home for news, sports, lifestyle, comedy, arts, kids, music, original series & more. Also, the Byzantine Empire was able to focus on Europe, and it eventually forced the Bulgarians into accepting Byzantine Christianity as their religion. The Byzantinist John Haldon considers the former number to be closer to reality, and estimates the size of the combined Arab force at 15,000–20,000 men. [33] [34] Strong influences can also be found in episodes of the Arab, and later Turkish, epics about Battal Ghazi and in an episode in One Thousand and One Nights . This event destroyed the power of the Paulician state and removed a major threat to Byzantium, heralding the fall of Tephrike itself and the annexation of the Paulician principality shortly after. ʿUmar ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn Marwān, ʿAmr ibn ʿUbaydallāh ibn Marwān, or simply Umar al-Aqta surnamed al-Aqtaʾ, "the one-handed", and found as Amer or Ambros in Byzantine sources, was the semi-independent Arab emir of Malatya (Melitene) from the 830s until his death in the Battle of Lalakaon on 3 September 863. Petronas was a brother of Empress Theodora and hence brother-in-law of Emperor Theophilos, under whom he advanced to the rank of patrikios and the post of droungarios of the Vigla regiment. [14] [16] [23] The following day, Umar threw his entire force towards the west (where Petronas was located) in an attempt at a breakthrough. [14][22] The exact location of the river and the battle site have not been identified, but most scholars agree that they lay near the river Halys, some 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Amisos. The Battle of Krasos was a battle in the Arab–Byzantine Wars that took place in August 804, between the Byzantines under Emperor Nikephoros I and an Abbasid army under Ibrahim ibn Jibril. [13] [15] The battle was bloody, with heavy casualties on both sides; according to the Persian historian al-Tabari, only a thousand of Umar's army survived. The Byzantine victories proved decisive: the main threats to the Byzantine borderlands were eliminated, and the era of Byzantine ascendancy in the East, which would culminate in the great conquests of the 10th century, had begun. … Leo, however, tricked them and secured the Byzantine throne for himself. Battle of Lalakaon. Paulicianism: Battle of Lalakaon, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Divri I, Petrus Siculus: Books, LLC, Books, LLC: Amazon.nl Umar's forces represented the bulk of his emirate's strength, but their size is unknown: the contemporary Muslim historian Ya'qubi claims that Umar had 8,000 men at his disposal, while the Byzantine historians Genesius and Theophanes Continuatus inflate the numbers of the Arab army to 40,000 men. The Byzantines stood firm, giving the other two Byzantine armies time to close in and attack the Arab army's exposed rear and flanks. The Paulicians were a Christian sect which—persecuted by the Byzantine state—had established a separate principality at Tephrike on Byzantium's eastern border and collaborated with the Muslim emirates of the Thughur, the Abbasid Caliphate's borderlands, against the Empire. The two centuries-old Arab-Byzantine conflict was on the cusp of a total shift in fortunes in the middle of the 9th century. Theophilos personally led the armies in his long war against the Arabs, beginning in 831. [1] [27] Petronas received the exalted court title of magistros , and the kleisoura of Charsianon was raised to the status of a full theme. This debacle, coupled with defeats in 954 and again in 955, led to Bardas Phokas' dismissal as Domestic of the Schools, and his replacement by his eldest son, Nikephoros Phokas. [4] With the waning of the Abbasid Caliphate's power after 842 and the rise of semi-independent emirates along the eastern Byzantine frontier, however, the Byzantines could increasingly assert themselves. A truce and a prisoner exchange were consequently agreed in 845, followed by a six-year cessation of hostilities, as both powers focused their attention elsewhere. The Byzantine victories were decisive; the main threats to the Byzantine borderlands were eliminated, and the era of Byzantine ascendancy in the East (culminating in the 10th-century conquests) began. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or the Battle of Poson (or Porson) (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος) was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). Grégoire claimed that the eponymous protagonist, the young Byzantine warrior Armouris, was actually inspired by Emperor Michael III. During an undercover mission on Lothal, the rebels Ezra Bridger, Kanan Jarrus, and Chopper learned about Thra… Al-Tabari records that the Emperor himself assumed command of these forces, but this is not supported by Byzantine sources. Battle of Lalakaon has been listed as one of the Warfare good articles under the good article criteria. [13] [18] [19] Byzantine armies, assembled from throughout the empire, converged on the Arabs from three directions: a northern army, made up of forces from the Black Sea themes of the Armeniacs, Bucellarians, Koloneia, and Paphlagonia; a southern force (probably the one which fought at Bishop's Meadow and had since shadowed the Arab army), from the Anatolic, Opsician, and Cappadocian themes and the kleisourai (frontier districts) of Seleukeia and Charsianon; and a western force under Petronas, with men from the Macedonian, Thracian, and Thracesian themes and the imperial tagmata from the capital. [31] A battle from the Byzantine heroic cycle around Digenis Akritas also strongly recalls the events of Lalakaon, as the eponymous hero surrounds an Arab army near Malakopeia. After sacking the city, they turned south to Amorium, where they arrived on 1 August. The Byzantine army was led by Petronas, the uncle of Emperor Michael III (r. 842–867), although Arab sources also mention the presence of Emperor Michael himself, while the Arabs were led by the emir of Melitene (Malatya), Umar al-Aqta (r. 830s–863). The Abbasids had launched a huge expedition with two separate armies in retaliation for the Byzantine emperor Theophilos's successes the previous year, and aimed to sack Amorion, one of Byzantium's largest cities. Battle of Lalakaon: Miller, Frederic P., Vandome, Agnes F., McBrewster, John: Amazon.com.au: Books At this time Yazeed was still south of the River Yarmuk; Amr bin Al Aas was still at the Valley of Araba; and several detachments of the corps of Abu Ubaidah and Shurahbil were spread over the District of Hauran. The Byzantine army was led by Petronas the Patrician, the uncle of Emperor Michael III, while the … On the Byzantine side, the Muslim marches were mirrored by the institution of the kleisourai districts and the akritai border guards. Nevertheless, the Arabs escaped the Byzantines and continued their raid north into the Armeniac Theme, reaching the Black Sea and sacking the port city of Amisos. Michael III was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867. Try Prime EN Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Returns & Orders Try Prime Cart. According to the Byzantinist John Haldon, the former number was closer to reality; Haldon estimates the combined Arab forces at 15,000–20,000 men. [2], The Byzantines were generally on the defensive during the 7th–9th centuries, [3] and suffered some catastrophic defeats, such as the razing of Amorium (home city of the reigning Amorian dynasty) in 838. Abū Ḥafṣ ibn ʿAmr was the last Arab emir of Malatya (Melitene) before its reconquest by the Byzantine Empire in 934. He played a leading role in the campaigns of Caliph al-Mu'tasim, and was responsible for the suppression of the rebellion of Babak Khorramdin and for his battlefield victory over the Byzantine emperor Theophilos during the Amorium campaign. The Battle of the Masts (Arabic: معركة ذات الصواري, romanized Ma‘rakat Dhāt al-Ṣawārī) or Battle of Phoenix was a crucial naval battle fought in 654 (A.H. 34) between the Muslim Arabs led by Abu al-A'war and the Byzantine fleet under the personal command of Emperor Constans II. At a location called Poson (Greek: Πόσων) or Porson near the Lalakaon river The exact location of the river and the battle site have not been identified; most scholars, agree that they lay near the river Halys, 130 km southeast of Amisos Boris was baptized—taking the name Michael in honor of the Byzantine emperor—beginning the Christianization of Bulgaria and his nation's absorption into the Byzantine-influenced Eastern Christian world. The Byzantines moved quickly to take advantage of their victory: a Byzantine army invaded Arab-held Armenia, and sometime in October or November, defeated and killed the emir Ali ibn Yahya. Over time, these expeditions, launched from bases in the Arab frontier zone on an almost annual basis, acquired a quasi-ritualized character. Depiction of the baptism of the Bulgarians from the Manasses Chronicle. Umar and Karbeas raided deep into Asia Minor, returning with substantial plunder. The Battle of Lalakaon(Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or the Battle of Poson(or Porson) (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος)[1]was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empireand an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia(modern northern Turkey). [15][16][17], As soon as Michael learned of the fall of Amisos, he ordered a huge force to be assembled (al-Tabari gives its size at 50,000 men) under his uncle Petronas, the Domestic of the Schools, and Nasar, the stratēgos of the Bucellarian Theme. Byzantine historians report that Umar, enraged that the sea blocked his advance, ordered it to be lashed; modern scholars consider this account most likely inspired by a similar story about Xerxes during the Persian Wars. [1][29][30], According to the French Byzantinist Henri Grégoire, the Byzantine success against the Arabs that culminated with the Battle of Lalakaon inspired the creation of one of the oldest surviving acritic (heroic) poems: the Song of Armouris. On this Day - September 3rd in 863 AD, the Battle of Lalakon was fought between Byzantine and Arab forces: Watch Queue Queue. Topic. The Byzantines hailed them as revenge for the sack of Amorium 25 years earlier, the victorious generals were granted a triumphal entry into Constantinople, and special celebrations and services were held. The Arabs crossed the Cilician Gates into Byzantine territory, plundering as they went, until they reached a place near Tyana. During the night, both Arabs and Byzantines endeavoured to occupy it, but the Byzantines emerged victorious from the ensuing fight. en The Arabs and Paulicians suffered a critical blow in 863 with the defeat and death of Umar at the Battle of Lalakaon and the death of Karbeas in the same year, but under their new leader, Chrysocheir, the Paulicians resumed their raids deep into Byzantine Anatolia, raiding as far as Nicaea and sacking Ephesus in 869/970. In 863, he scored a crushing victory at the Battle of Lalakaon, a feat which marked the gradual beginning of a Byzantine counter-offensive in the East. Theophilos with his army confronted the smaller Muslim army, under the Iranian vassal prince Afshin, at Dazimon. 1940. [22], Only the emir's son, leading a small force, escaped the battlefield, fleeing south towards the border area of Charsianon. [6] [7] Melitene, in particular, was a major threat to Byzantium; its location, on the western side of the Anti-Taurus range, allowed direct access to the Anatolian plateau. This was followed shortly afterwards with another raid by the forces of Tarsus under Ali. Battle of Lalakaon 863 AD.This scene depicts The battle of Lalakaon, was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia. [5][9][10] There, the Tarsian army returned home, but Umar obtained Ja'far's leave to press on into Asia Minor. After the rapid Muslim conquests of the 7th century, the Byzantine Empire was confined to Asia Minor, the southern coasts of the Balkans, and parts of Italy. The Battle of Lalakaon ( Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or Battle of Po (r)son ( Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό (ρ)σωνος) was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey ). During this period he participated alongside Umar in several raids against the Byzantine Empire. Both sides tried to occupy it during the night, but the Byzantines were victorious. [13] [14], Emperor Michael III assembled his army to counter the Arab raid, and met them in battle at an area known in Arab sources as Marj al-Usquf ("Bishop's Meadow"): a highland near Malakopeia, north of Nazianzus. 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