The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere. Distribution pattern of pigments has great taxonomic significance in algal systematics. The Phaeophyta (brown algae) are characterized by five chief distinguishing features: (1) the photosynthetic pigments include chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-c, β carotene, fucoxanthin, violaxanthin, diatoxanthin and other xanthophylls, and in general there is an excess of carotenoid over chlorophyll pigments; fucoxanthin is present in sufficient quantity to mask the green colour of chlorophylls and to impart its own brown colour to these algae; (2) the excess photosynthate is commonly stored in the form of laminarin and mannitol, rarely as fat droplets; (3) certain whitish granules, called fucosan vesicles, are usually present in the cell; (4) the cell wall is composed of cellulose, fucinic acid and alginic acid; and (5) the flagellated structures have a pair of laterally inserted unequal flagella, of which the larger one is anterior and pantonematic whereas the smaller one is posterior and acronematic. HPLC chromatograms of pigments extracted from 4 species of brown seaweeds (Dictyota dentata, Padina australis, Sargassum crassifoliumand Turbinaria conoides). Pigments are usually found in specialized plastids called chromophores in all groups of algae except in the members of Cyanophyceae (blue green algae). They are sometimes referred to as golden-brown algae due to their coloration from specific photosynthetic pigments. Ø  Chlorophyll-e  :  Present in Xanthophyceae. The process occurs in almost all algae, and in fact much of what is known about photosynthesis was first discovered by studying the green alga Chlorella. Chrysophytes are a group of algae commonly found in lakes and large ponds. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Phaeophyta, brown algae, are most abundant in temperate waters and are mainly represented by the kelp's which are the largest and most conspicuous of all marine plants. Ø  Members of Cyanophyceae (Myxophyceae = blue green algae) and Rhodophyceae (red algae) contain large amount phycobilins, particularly phycocyanins. But for few fresh water forms, most of the brown algae are marine. Brown algae are a group of algae belonging to class Phaeophyceae. Color: Olive green to brown, depending on which pigment, brown (fucoxanthin) or green pigment (chlorophyll), is more dominant. Maths. Ø  Phycoerythrin present abundantly in members of Rhodophyceae (red algae), Distribution pattern of different pigments in different algal groups. What are different types of Chlorophylls present in algae? Ø  Example: lutein and zeaxanthin (both are responsible for the yellow colour of egg yolk), Blue colour of Cyanophyceae due to Phycocyanins (source wikipedia), Ø  Phycobilins are water soluble pigments, Ø  Phycobilins are always bonded with some water soluble proteins called phycobiliproteins, Ø  They are present in Cyanophyceae and Red algae, Ø  Phycobilins are usually found in organisms living in deep water for the efficient absorption of light, Ø  All phycobilins are strongly fluorescent. The multi-cellular algae develop specialized tissues but they lack the true stems, leaves, or roots. Sunlight contains all the colours of the rainbow mixed to form ‘white light’. Brown algae with chlorophyll pigments a and c, as well as xanthophyl and fucoxanthin make the … Green algae, brown algae, red algae, golden-yellow algae are main types of algae. @. Kelp forests like these contain a high level of biodiversity. Phaeophyta is a food and a habitat for other organisms in marine environments. pp 141-160 | The brown coloration of many algae is caused by the presence of specialized photosynthetic carotenoids. Interpretation Translation  brown algae 褐藻类. Algae - Algae - Photosynthesis and light-absorbing pigments: Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy whereby carbon dioxide and water are converted into organic molecules. Ø  Examples: α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, Ø  Xanthophylls are also called as carotenols. Fucoxanthin brown algae pigment molecule. Evans, L. V., Distribution of pyrenoids among some brown algae. They are multicellular and the colour depends on the ratio of chlorophyll and the pigment, fucoxanthin. Ø  All major algal groups have at least one characteristic pigment in their cells. Synthesis of this carbonaceous I aterial, so essential to life in the sea and probably to the formation of,etroleum, depends upon absorption of light by pigments in the living algal cells. The different pigments absorb different coloured light and this is very important for seaweeds that live in deeper water. Many coloured pigments such as green, red, yellow, and blue have been found in marine and freshwater algae. Algae show great diversity in pigmentation. Brown algae are generally khaki-brown in colour, due to the possession of green pigments (chlorophyll a and c) and the brown fucoxanthin. Most algae are aquatic but some are semi-aquatic and terrestrial. They have a characteristic brown to yellow color due to the presence of a unique combination of photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, and xanthophylls. Algae are a complex, polyphyletic group of organisms, affordable and naturally rich in nutrients, but also valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive substances such as natural pigments. Brown algae, (class Phaeophyceae), class of about 1,500 species of algae in the division Chromophyta, common in cold waters along continental coasts. Characteristics of Algae. Out of all known species, 99% are marine with the remaining 1% being found in freshwater ecosystems. Algae are unicellular, colonial or large multi-cellular organisms. Brown algae have chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin pigments which other land plants do not have, while other terrestrial plants have plasmodesmata that brown algae do not have. Ø  Carotenoids with beta-ionone ring have Vitamin-A like activity, Ø  All carotenoids are strong antioxidants, Yellow colour of egg yolk is due to carotenoids (source wikipedia). True stems, leaves, or roots lakes and large ponds in freshwater ecosystems paleobiologists! 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