These are male and female scales, respectively. Severely infested trees look like they are covered with strings of popcorn. In some cases, the scales are quite numerous. These materials also have minimal adverse effects on the adult lady beetles and parasites already in settled crawlers. The first instar nymphs (crawlers) that hatch from the eggs are cream-colored to pale green and very small making them difficult to see with the unaided eye. Control is seldom needed on healthy, established trees unless there is an excessive build-up of honeydew. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up to 5mm wide and 12mm long. Several parasites and predators have been reported for the cottony maple leaf scale. Adult females are about 1/8 inch long, oval and yellowish tan with a brown margin. Insecticidal soaps or 1.5 percent horticultural oil must be applied thoroughly to the leaves, both to the underside and upper surfaces, in order to kill the scales. Updated Apr 05, 2019; Posted Aug 26, 2007 . Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, and brown scales 1/4 to 3/8-inch in diameter, that can attach themselves firmly to tree branches. Therefore, systemic provide much longer control than contact insecticides and can kill all feeding stages. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. G = greenhouse, N = nursery, L = landscape, I = interiorscape. The cottony maple scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rathvon), is a highly modified insect pest that commonly attacks silver and red maples in Ohio. Dormant oil sprays have been traditionally used to manage many scales on ornamental trees. Unfortunately, many maples are sensitive to these oil sprays and significant small branch dieback or spring leaf drop can occur if the dormant oil is applied after the maple sap has begun to flow. Soaps and oils only kill the pests on contact. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. Cottony maple scale, adult females with egg sacs on twigs. Stand under a tree and look up and you will see cottony masses about the size of a cotton swap stuck to the bottom of leaves. Cottony scales suck sap from leaves (summer) and twigs (fall, winter, early spring) depriving the tree of valuable resources. Even the occasional heavy populations will do little more than stunt tree growth with no lasting effect. Here, they reinsert their mouthparts and settle down for the remainder of their life. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. In this situation, control is advisable. At maturity, the females produce the white, cottony egg masses, called ovisacs, over a period of several weeks. The most abundant are in a group of small lady beetles in the genus Hyperaspis. Cottony maple cushion scale belong to the soft bodied type. Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. Cottony maple leaf scale is found throughout the eastern United States and southern Canada. It is also known as cottony taxus scale. See the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual for additional insecticide choices. Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. I prefer using horticultural oil for control since it is less likely to kill beneficial insects that prey on this scale. After mating, the females crawl to the leaves to lay eggs. Female cottony maple leaf scales with ovisacs on a maple leaf damaged by cankerworms. Cottony taxus scale on yew. They closely adhere to the undersides of leaves and are easily overlooked. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Damage caused by cottony maple scale. If you have a disability and experience difficulty accessing this content request accommodation here. During the growing season, cottony maple scale is most likely to be found on leaf undersides next to leaf veins. If abundant, a sooty mold fungus may colonize the honeydew, resulting in a black sooty appearance on the leaves, twigs, and branches. Preferred hosts include maple, elm, hawthorn, dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and linden. Improved growing conditions and pruning out the dead branches will greatly promote plant health. Cottony maple scale over-winters as immature females (nymphs) on twigs and branches. The most common one, Hyperaspis signata, has a larva that looks like a mealybug. Cottony maple leaf scale damage. Pest description and crop damage The cottony maple scale is one of the largest soft scales. It has also been reported from some western states. The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. Facebook Share. Leaves may turn yellow and drop prematurely. A close examination of the ovisacs reveals the eggs are held inside a sack-like matrix of sticky, silk-like material. It is commonly mistaken for "plant sap" being dropped on cars, sidewalks and lawn furniture lying under trees. These lady beetles continue to feed on the nymphs that settle on the leaves. Apply registered products in mid-July and again in the second week of August for best control. By late May to early June, the females have matured, and they begin to produce their ovisacs. As honeydew collects on leaves and branches, bees, wasps and ants are attracted to the area to feed. There are several predators and parasitoids that will naturally keep cottony maple scale populations in check. Female scales produce cottony white ovisacs in spring then die. Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. Here, the nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew and grow by molting once. It also occurs on maple trees, but the rest of its host range is different than that of cottony maple scale. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. Consequently infested trees are stunted and appear scorched and black. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. | Columbus, Ohio 43210. For assistance, contact your local N.C. The settled nymphs are also attacked by several tiny parasitic wasps. Both scales produce white, cottony ovisacs, and both have wide host ranges; however, as its common name implies, cottony maple leaf scale produces its ovisacs on the underside of its host's leaves. Accessibility Accommodation. | Columbus, Ohio 43210 | 614-292-6181 They spend the winter in an immature stage on twigs or branches and complete development in June when the egg sacs appear. Normally, this peculiar scale is a mere curiosity and a nuisance. . Cottony Maple Scale. Cottony maple scale is a soft scale insect that attacks many common ornamental nursery crops. CFAES Diversity  |  Nondiscrimination notice  |  Site Map. Revised: Sept. 18, 2019. Crawlers hatch in late May to early June and feed on the underside of the host leaves, usually along the ribs of the leaf. These tiny crawlers are small, flat, oval insects with two distinct eyes, short antennae and tiny legs. Also black sooty mold. Cottony camellia scale and cottony maple scale are the other common species. N.C. Severe infestations that go on for several years may cause twig dieback and only under extreme … If scale populations are heavy enough the tree may show twig and limb dieback as the insect spends the winter on the twigs once the leaves drop off. Damage from cottony maple scale insects is usually very limited. During the summer, the scale enlarges by secreting wax resulting in a body several times greater than the overwintering form. Newly hatched nymphs are pale yellow or green and translucent. They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back (Figure 1). This scale feeds primarily on maple and dogwood in North Carolina, but it also infests hollies, Andromeda, and gum. These are the egg masses. Egg sacks appear as white cottony masses emerging from beneath the brownish scale covers of females. In April and May, cottony maple leaf scales move to the leaves and lay up to 2,500 eggs in cottony ovisacs on the undersides (Figure 3 and Figure 4). with its southern boundary being at or slightly north of I-72. The insects feed on foliage, reducing vigor of the plant and causing twig dieback. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. This pest has numerous parasites and predators that normally keep its populations in check. They closely adhere to … High populations can result in branches being completely inundated with females and their white egg masses. THE COTTONY MAPLE SCALE IN ILLINOIS. Twitter Share. Small, newly transplanted trees or weakened or stressed trees due to drought, compacted soils, poor fertilization, etc., are the ones most likely to exhibit major branch or crown dieback, or even death. Affected scales often turn brown or black and have tiny round emergence holes on their back surface. Each species has a different host range and life cycle. The following pesticides are effective for control of cottony maple leaf scales. Cottony Maple Scale has one generation per year, and understanding its life cycle is crucial for management of this pest, because not all pesticides will be effective at all insect life stages. These wasps lay eggs inside the nymphs, in which their developing larvae feed on the pest from the inside out. 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. (76) Photo: John Davidson be controlled as crawlers and immatures. This fact sheet is a revision of HYG-2019. The "cotton" is actually a waxy secretion enveloping the ovisac, which may contain over 1,500 eggs. There is one generation each year. Contact insecticides such as pyrethroids may provide less consistent control because they rely on contacting the insect whereas systemics make the plant toxic for the insect to feed on. This is a result of a poorly timed pesticide application that kills most of the parasites and predators but allows survival of the resistant scale stages, protected by their waxy covering. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up to 5mm wide and 12mm long. After mating, the males die and the females soon withdraw their mouthparts and crawl back onto small twigs and branches. Additionally, an unsightly fungus called "sooty mold" begins to develop on the honeydew, turning the leaf surface a gray-black color which, in turn, may hinder photosynthesis. Figure 4. Columbus, Ohio 43210 Unfortunately, these natural enemies are also extremely susceptible to pesticide applications, so timing chemical treatments properly is very important. The insect spends the winter in an immature stage on twigs and branches, maturing in late May or early June. Insecticides . commitment to diversity. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. Crawlers appear in June and immatures in summer on the underside of leaves. College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences This insect occurs in the northern half of Illinois. Many systemic products are available that can be applied as foliar spray or drench. Cottony maple leaf scale females and egg sacs. Cottony Maple Leaf Scale. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. Arborist Dave Leonard recently brought samples to the on black gum. These egg-laying scales do not feed and they soon die. Heavily infested trees have small flowers and leaves. Drench applications should be made when eggs are present so the tree can take up the material by the time crawlers become active. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. However, every few years, these natural controls seem to fail and the cottony maple scale can reach epidemic proportions. Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, brown insects without obvious legs, antennae or wings. In late summer, the scales crawl to the twigs where they feed for the rest of the fall, winter and early spring. When the sap begins to flow in the spring, the females continue to feed and grow, producing considerable amounts of honeydew. These soft scales are usually first noticed during the summer months when the female produces a conspicuous white egg sac, called an ovisac, that appears as a ¼- to ½-inch long ball of cotton. There is one generation a year. They are firmly attached to the twigs and branches of various trees and may be ¼ to ⅜ inch in diameter. 353 less due in part to the fact that the upper surface of the leaf is more exposed to the spray than the under, and possibly also in part to the inferior vitality of the scales on the more exposed surface of the leaf. Both the adults and larvae enter ovisacs to feed on the egg masses. Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide, only controls soft scales. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. Rarely, heavy infestations have been found to kill stressed or weakened trees. These pesticides, again, often need to be applied in sufficient spray quantity to wet both the leaf upper and lower surfaces to be effective. They feed by sucking sap and some can weaken host plants, many excrete a sticky substance (honeydew), which allows the growth of sooty moulds. Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites: Publication date: Aug. 1, 2010 The most important predators are several black lady beetles. As with all scale, control is difficult and timing is key. Key Points. Twig dieback may occur resulting in sparsely foliated canopy (Figure 2). Cottony maple scale is sometimes mistaken for Cottony Maple Leaf Scale (P. acericola). They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back . Immatures overwinter on twigs. Cottony Maple Scale; May 18, 2005: We are receiving reports of silver maple trees dripping in the Kankakee County area and have seen some specimens of cottony maple scale from northern Illinois. Foliar applications should target crawlers. Cooperative Extension is based at North Carolina's two land-grant institutions, Cottony Maple Leaf Scale is one of several cottony scales in the genus Pulvinaria. They excrete honeydew in which can grow sooty mold. It is also known to be able to survive on other deciduous trees and shrubs including honey and black locust, white ash, euonymus, oak, boxelder, dogwood, hackberry, sycamore, linden, beech, elm, willow, basswood, poplar, rose and sumac. Treating trees with cottony maple scale. Cooperative Extension county center. Most scale insects have hard coatings of wax on their bodies but cottony scale covers itself with fluffy filaments. We work with families and children, farmers and businessowners, community leaders and elected officials to build better lives, better businesses and better communities to make Ohio great. Honeydew is the excess water and sugar excreted by many plant-sap-feeding insects. The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility. (76) Photo: Whitney Cranshaw Cottony maple scale crawlers along leaf veins in the summer. Phone: 614-292-6181, © 2020 | 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. 538160-Cir. You can find these now on their most common hosts: maple and dogwood. Frequently, feeding results in the secretion of a clear sticky substance called honeydew. A&T State University, in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Cottony maple scale is most common on silver maples, but it can feed on other maple species, boxelder, basswood, birch, elm, and linden. These eggs hatch from mid-June to August, and the young nymphs called scale crawlers emerge… They each contain many hundred eggs that are hatching as we speak. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. Regular mosquito fogging is also blamed for killing of the predators and parasitoids. Cottony maple leaf scale, Pulvinaria acericola, is one of several ‘cottony’ scales in the genus Pulvinaria. The females mature when the plant resumes growth in the spring. An inexpensive 10x hand lens will aid in scouting. Damage to the host tree is caused when heavy populations of cottony maple scale withdraw sap from the plant, resulting in branch and twig dieback. Immature forms (crawlers) are flattened and brown to yellowish green in color; however, the conspicuous, cottony egg sac of the mature female is two to three times the length of the scale body, or up to 6 mm. The "cotton" is actually a waxy secretion enveloping the ovisac, which may contain over 1,500 eggs. This site designed and maintained by CFAES Marketing and Communications. What makes management of this scale more difficult is the fact that insecticide applications may actually cause the scale problem to continue longer than normal. At maturity, the females produce the white, cottony egg masses, called ovisacs, over a period of several weeks. Notice that ones with black color are parasitized by a tiny wasp. Cottony ovisac on maple leaf with desiccated adult female present. Consequently, they may not be effective where several l… 64-10 S6 %a 3 Sporadic outbreaks of this scale insect in various parts of the United The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. We connect with people in all stages of life, from young children to older adults. Heavily infested branches can be killed by the cottony maple scale. The crawlers will … The cottony maple leaf scale is so named because the females exude their eggs in an elongated, white, cottony structure called an ovisac which are stuck onto the underside of leaves. Honeydew often drops onto leaves or plants below. Always follow the pesticide label. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. Application of soaps or oils should be made in mid-July and again in early August, if additional crawlers are found. CFAES COVID-19 Resources:   Safe and Healthy Buckeyes   |   COVID-19 Hub   |   CFAES Calendar. Recommendations of specific chemicals are based upon information on the manufacturer's label and performance in a limited number of trials. Timing pesticide application to the crawler stage is very important. Cottony maple leaf scale eggs begin hatching when the accumulated Growing Degree Days (GDD) reach 1,216. Japanese maples (Acer palmatum) are desirable for their delicate, colorful leaves and compact size. Maple cotton scale is found on several other common hardwood trees such as ash, elm and boxelder. Figure 2. Horticultural oil can be used in winter when trees are without leaves to smother females living on branches. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. These lady beetles and their larvae feed on the scale eggs in the ovisacs. A&T State University. Second instar cottony maple scale nymphs. Adult scale insects are usually covered in waxy shell-like cover. It is generally not very abundant. The crawlers walk onto the leaves and tend to attach alongside the major leaf veins, usually on the underside. Cottony maple leaf scale females form their ovisacs on leaves, not on branches. In extreme conditions, a tree may be killed. Abundant Pulvinarias on Maple," giving in detail the distribution, food plants, and life history of the cottony maple scale and the nearly related maple-leaf scale, illustrated by numerous figures of the various stages of each species. By this time, the scales look like two different kinds: a translucent white to pink form and a larger, flat, tan form. Managing Cottony Maple Scale. Adult lady beetles are black with small orange spots. The related cottony maple leaf scale (P. acericola) also produces white egg masses, but these are found only on the leaves, not the twigs and branches. They secrete the white, cottony masses beneath which, they lay 500 or more eggs in late May to early June. The immature scale is flat, oval shaped, and light yellow to green. Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, brown insects without obvious legs, antennae or wings. Pulvinaria innumerabilis (cottony maple scale) is a small, flattened, brown scale insect about 1/8" long. Occasionally, with very high infestations of feeding crawlers, leaves may turn yellow and fall prematurely, ultimately causing individual branch dieback. Some premature leaf drop may result but small to moderate populations cause no harm to trees. Mature … Thus by mid-June, the scale eggs have hatched, the crawlers are exposed on the undersides of leaves and the lady beetles are gone. … Newly hatched nymphs are pale yellow or green and translucent. The crawlers, or immature scale insects, produce large amounts of honeydew while feeding on leaves. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by NC State University or N.C. A&T State University nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. 1). Following a recommended fertility program and watering regime will promote plant health. The overwintering form of the cottony maple scale is a small, brown, flattened 1/8 inch long scale attached to the bark of twigs and small branches. Posted on June 13, 2017 by cakaiser2014. In April, male scales develop into tiny, winged, gnatlike insects which mate with females and then die. — Read our However, infestations on newly transplanted trees in the landscape can cause premature leaf drop, stunted growth, and, in some cases, branch or tree death. Cottony maple scales are occasionally confused with a close relative, the cottony maple leaf scale, Pulvinaria acericola. The full bloom of goldenrain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata) is a pretty good phenological indicator of the event. In extreme cases, it is possible to lose the tree. CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. commitment to diversity. Cottony Maple Scale; Cottony maple scale is being found in DuPage, Livingston, and Grundy counties, on silver maple, sugar maple, honeylocust, green ash, and hawthorn. This publication printed on: Dec. 03, 2020, The Scale Insects of California: Part 1. Heavy infestations can result in branch dieback and in rare instances, tree death. The immatures feed on the leaves before mi-grating to the trunk to overwinter on the bark. In early summer mature females begin to secrete white, waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs in which they lay as many as 1,500 eggs. The Soft Scales (Homoptera : Coccoidea : Coccidae), The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants, NC State Extension Plant Pathology Publications and Factsheets, NC State Horticultural Science Publications, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, NC Cottony camellia scale is a soft scale that feeds on camellia, holly, yew, euonymus, sweetbox, and maple. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. After leaves open thorough coverage is very difficult. Several insecticides are registered for control of scale crawlers and newly settled crawlers. For technical support please contact the CFAES Helpdesk. You can find these now on their most common hosts: maple and dogwood. Cottony camellia scale and cottony maple scale are other similar species. They are firmly attached to the twigs and branches of various trees and may be ¼ to ⅜ inch in diameter. Copyright © 2015, The Ohio State University, David J. Shetlar and Jennifer E. Andon, Department of Entomology, ©  2020 The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. These eggs hatch from mid-June to August, and the young nymphs called scale crawlers emerge. They are black, flat, and oval. For assistance with a specific problem, contact your local Cooperative Extension center. N.C. Trunk and soil injections can be done in the fall or spring. Read our NC State University and NC It’s cottony maple leaf scale. Immature lady beetles are gray but soon become covered with a thick, cottony covering of wax that makes them look like mealybugs. How to Get Rid of Scales on Japanese Maples. This is the optimum time for control. Indians. Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. .• Insecticidal Sprays Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect. Because environmental conditions and methods of application by growers may vary widely, performance of the chemical will not always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. Soaps and horticultural oils can be very effective in managing the freshly settled crawlers. Pieces … In September, the male scales emerge as tiny winged gnatlike insects that move around on the leaves in search of females. There are more than 25 species of scale insect found in British Gardens. Cottony maple scales commonly infest silver maple but can feed on several species including other maples, boxelder, basswood, birch, elm, and linden. As the scale eggs hatch, the lady beetles leave, apparently to look for other prey. Cottony Maple Leaf Scale is one of several cottony scales in the genus Pulvinaria. = nursery, L = landscape, i = interiorscape immature females ( ). Half of Illinois penetrating over-wintering stages of the plant and causing twig dieback are desirable for their delicate, leaves... Late may or early June, the nymphs that settle on the leaves to lay eggs = nursery L. The nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew while feeding on leaves, not on branches more. Much longer control than contact insecticides and can kill all feeding stages desiccated adult female present or immature is... Black color are parasitized by a tiny wasp sooty mold is found throughout the eastern United States and Canada... 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Buckeyes | COVID-19 Hub | cfaes Calendar the bark is sometimes cottony maple leaf scale for cottony maple scale other! Attached to the trunk to overwinter on the underside of leaves and tend to attach the..., reducing vigor of the fall, winter and early spring a ridge. Numbers on silver maple, elm and boxelder insect spends the winter in an immature stage on and! Usage regulations and examine a current product label used in winter when are... Early summer mature females begin to secrete white, cottony egg masses on twigs or and! Brown insects without obvious legs, antennae or wings prefer using horticultural oil can done... Appear in June when the sap begins to flow in the secretion of a clear substance... All feeding stages and linden plant resumes growth in the ovisacs reveals the eggs are held a... Use of Agricultural chemicals are included in this publication printed on: 03!, or immature scale insects of California: Part 1 United States and southern.. 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2020 cottony maple leaf scale