They must be dependent on the emperor, not the emperor on them.”  The Catholics were also allowed to try to convert the Protestants by force. With the exception of Christian of Anhalt, his advisors urged him to reject it, as did the Dutch, the Duke of Savoy, and his father-in-law James. [141] A scathing condemnation of the trials, Cautio Criminalis, was written by professor and poet Friedrich Spee, himself a Jesuit and former "witch confessor". Aug 7, 2013 - GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, LION OF THE NORTH. [126], The modern consensus is the population of the Holy Roman Empire declined from 18-20 million in 1600 to 11–13 million in 1650, and did not regain pre-war levels until 1750. Christian and Gustavus were able to arrange a treaty, which they signed in 1628, it was clear that Denmark would not fight Germany, as they had already been whipped by them. Gustavus AdolphusThe king of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, credited with founding the Swedish Empire, who led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years’ War. Sweden had little money and only one ally, Transylvania, which was far from his field of actions. [127] Nearly 50% of these losses appear to have been incurred during the first period of Swedish intervention from 1630 to 1635. A Spanish offensive in 1636 reached Corbie in Northern France; although it caused panic in Paris, lack of supplies forced them to retreat, and it was not repeated. [90], Three weeks after Rocroi, Ferdinand invited Sweden and France to attend peace negotiations in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück, but talks were delayed when Christian of Denmark blockaded Hamburg and increased toll payments in the Baltic. Gustav II Adolf's politics in the conquered territory of Estonia also show pro… [135] They originated in the Bishopric of Würzburg, an area with a history of such events going back to 1616 and now re-ignited by Bishop von Ehrenberg, a devout Catholic eager to assert the church's authority in his territories. He was also known for creating a revolutionary military technique that helped his military win several battles and attacks. He attacked in 1625. [36], By mid-June, the Bohemian army under Thurn was outside Vienna; Mansfeld's defeat by Spanish-Imperial forces at Sablat forced him to return to Prague, but Ferdinand's position continued to worsen. It was the struggle to secure religious liberty,–a warfare between Catholic and Protestant Germany. The Swedes rejected a proposal that Christian of Denmark act as mediator, with Papal Legate Fabio Chigi and the Venetian Republic appointed instead. PomeraniaA region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. [21], Managing these issues was complicated by the fragmented nature of the Empire, a patchwork of nearly 1,800 separate entities in Germany, the Low Countries, Northern Italy, and areas like Alsace, now part of modern France. [66] Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. [112], Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. [19], After 1560, the Protestant cause was divided by the growth of Calvinism, a Reformed faith not recognised by Augsburg; Lutheran states like Saxony viewed Calvinists in the Palatinate and Brandenburg with mistrust, paralysing Imperial institutions. [128], In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. [107], In 1580, Philip II of Spain became ruler of the Portuguese Empire, and the 1602 to 1663 Dutch–Portuguese War began as an offshoot of the Dutch fight for independence from Spain. [96] Seeking to release French troops and prevent further Swedish gains by neutralising Bavaria, Mazarin negotiated the Truce of Ulm, signed on 14 March 1647 by Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden. But he did embark boldly into the struggle, emploring the help of God in his cause. He died at the Battle of Lutzen on November 6, 1632. [108], This was accompanied by a struggle for control in the East Indies and Africa, increasing Portuguese resentment against the Spanish, who were perceived as prioritising their own colonies. In the October 1619 Treaty of Munich, Ferdinand agreed to transfer the Palatinate's electoral vote to Bavaria and allow him to annex the Upper Palatinate. This included ambitious Imperial states like Lutheran Saxony and Catholic Bavaria, as well as France, which faced Habsburg territories on its borders in Flanders, Franche-Comté, and the Pyrenees. Thirty Years' War (London, 1984), the best modern treat-ment of the subject, though one whose use to the aver-age reader is limited by the fact that only 226 of its 340 pages are text. [82] After the French captured Arras in August 1640 and over-ran Artois, Olivares argued it was time to accept Dutch independence and prevent further losses in Flanders. While flight saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. In all these areas, war, famine and disease inflicted severe losses on local populations. Granted, the French had a bit of help from the Swedes, who had switched roles from fighter to financier. [123], Based on local records, military action accounted for less than 3% of civilian deaths; the major causes were starvation (12%), bubonic plague (64%), typhus (4%), and dysentery (5%). The most important historiographical debate pertaining to Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years’ War is, in fact, one that is not even discussed until 1955—the “military revolution” debate. This influential work was later credited with ending the practice in Germany, and eventually throughout Europe. [44] Since Frederick demanded full restitution of his lands and titles, which was incompatible with the Treaty of Munich, hopes of reaching a negotiated peace quickly evaporated. There is one at hand, who will help; who has already helped. [74], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. During 1629, another 274 suspected witches were killed in the Bishopric of Eichstätt, plus another 50 in the adjacent Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg. Gustavus Adolphus was an accomplished soldier and with the help of Catholic France, he freed himself from the war against Poland with the Treaty of Altmark of September 1629. [113], Taken as a whole, the consequences of these two treaties can be divided into the internal political settlement and external territorial changes. The Thirty Years War by C. V. Wedgwood [125] Poor harvests throughout the 1630s and repeated plundering of the same areas led to widespread famine; contemporaries record people eating grass, or too weak to accept alms, while instances of cannibalism were common. [146] Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620". Gustavus Adolphus despatched several thousand Scots and Swedish troops under Alexander Leslie to Stralsund, who was appointed governor. This meant each of the 224 member states was either Lutheran, the most usual form of Protestantism, or Catholic, based on the choice made by their ruler. Before restarting hostilities, Ambrosio Spinola, commander in the Spanish Netherlands, had first to secure the Spanish Road, an overland route connecting Habsburg possessions in Italy to Flanders. Gustavus signed an alliance with Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, securing his interests in Pomerania against the Catholic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, another Baltic competitor linked to Ferdinand by family and religion. The stage was now set for war with Germany. Many have said that he did it to defend Protestantism, and that certainly was part of it. Anti-Imperial alliance: prior to 1635 [a]. [60], Made over-confident by success, in March 1629 Ferdinand passed an Edict of Restitution, which required all lands taken from the Catholic church after 1555 to be returned. One problem that was encountered by the Protestants during this great war was that each of the nations was too concerned about its own welfare. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early 1628 when Ferdinand deposed the hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg, and appointed Wallenstein in his place. [71] Two months later, the Swedes won a resounding victory at Lützen, where Gustavus was killed. [136], At the same time, Prince-Bishop Johann von Dornheim held a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby Bishopric of Bamberg. Attempts to negotiate a peaceful solution failed as the conflict in Germany became part of the wider struggle between France and their Habsburg rivals in Spain and Austria. Gustavus Adolphus was killed in battle in 1632, ending Sweden’s active leadership in the Protestant cause. [31], The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. Combined with Ferdinand's support for the Catholic Counter-Reformation, this appeared to threaten other Protestant rulers within the Empire. In return, they dissolved the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues. He asked for the opinion of each in writing, so that their opinion would not be quelled by others. On hand to enforce this edict was an army of more than 130,000 men under Wallenstein, who said he would “teach the Electors manners. The History of Gustavus Adolphus and of the Thirty Years' War Up to the King's Death: With Some Account of Its Conclusion by the Peace of Westphalia Anno 1648 Benjamin Chapman Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans , 1856 - Sweden - 441 pages The Battle of Lutzen occurred on November 16, 1632 during the Thirty Years' War and resulted in a Swedish victory though gifted leader King Gustavus Adolphus was killed in the fighting. When Frederick refused to admit defeat, the war expanded into the Palatinate, whose strategic importance drew in external powers, notably the Dutch Republic and Spain. [134], Contemporaries spoke of a 'frenzy of despair' as people sought to make sense of the turmoil and hardship unleashed by the war. Although retaken in 1625, a second fleet established Dutch Brazil in 1630, which was then relinquished in 1654. [43], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. [76], Ferdinand II died in February 1637 and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, who faced a This was because they opposed the House of Hapsburg, the great Catholic dynasty. Lack of a sense of 'shared community' resulted in atrocities such as the destruction of Magdeburg, in turn creating large numbers of refugees who were extremely susceptible to sickness and hunger. The Habsburg heir Archduke Ferdinand first required the return of all property taken from the Catholic church since 1552, rather than leaving the courts to decide case by case as previously. This new assault on 'German liberties' ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success. This forced them to become smaller and more mobile, with a greater emphasis on cavalry, shortened the campaigning seasons and restricted them to main supply lines. [34], Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. Gustavus wrote to Oxenstiern, his chancellor: You say that we haven’t money to pay troops for more than four months: granted; but once let us plant our foothold sure, and God and the hour will teach us how to strengthen ourselves further. 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